Source code for paddle.fluid.layers.nn

# Copyright (c) 2018 PaddlePaddle Authors. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
"""
All layers just related to the neural network.
"""

from __future__ import print_function

import numpy as np
import warnings
import six
import os
import inspect
from ..layer_helper import LayerHelper
from ..initializer import Normal, Constant, NumpyArrayInitializer
from ..framework import Variable, OpProtoHolder, in_dygraph_mode
from ..dygraph import base
from ..param_attr import ParamAttr
from .layer_function_generator import autodoc, templatedoc, _generate_doc_string_
from .tensor import concat, assign, fill_constant
from . import utils
from .. import unique_name
from functools import reduce
from .. import core
from ..dygraph import layers

__all__ = [
    'fc',
    'embedding',
    'dynamic_lstm',
    'dynamic_lstmp',
    'dynamic_gru',
    'gru_unit',
    'linear_chain_crf',
    'crf_decoding',
    'cos_sim',
    'cross_entropy',
    'bpr_loss',
    'square_error_cost',
    'chunk_eval',
    'sequence_conv',
    'conv2d',
    'conv3d',
    'sequence_pool',
    'sequence_softmax',
    'softmax',
    'pool2d',
    'pool3d',
    'adaptive_pool2d',
    'adaptive_pool3d',
    'batch_norm',
    'data_norm',
    'beam_search_decode',
    'conv2d_transpose',
    'conv3d_transpose',
    'sequence_expand',
    'sequence_expand_as',
    'sequence_pad',
    'sequence_unpad',
    'lstm_unit',
    'reduce_sum',
    'reduce_mean',
    'reduce_max',
    'reduce_min',
    'reduce_prod',
    'reduce_all',
    'reduce_any',
    'sequence_first_step',
    'sequence_last_step',
    'sequence_slice',
    'dropout',
    'split',
    'ctc_greedy_decoder',
    'edit_distance',
    'l2_normalize',
    'matmul',
    'topk',
    'warpctc',
    'sequence_reshape',
    'transpose',
    'im2sequence',
    'nce',
    'sampled_softmax_with_cross_entropy',
    'hsigmoid',
    'beam_search',
    'row_conv',
    'multiplex',
    'layer_norm',
    'group_norm',
    'spectral_norm',
    'softmax_with_cross_entropy',
    'smooth_l1',
    'one_hot',
    'autoincreased_step_counter',
    'reshape',
    'squeeze',
    'unsqueeze',
    'lod_reset',
    'lrn',
    'pad',
    'pad_constant_like',
    'label_smooth',
    'roi_pool',
    'roi_align',
    'dice_loss',
    'image_resize',
    'image_resize_short',
    'resize_bilinear',
    'resize_nearest',
    'gather',
    'scatter',
    'sequence_scatter',
    'random_crop',
    'mean_iou',
    'relu',
    'selu',
    'log',
    'crop',
    'rank_loss',
    'margin_rank_loss',
    'elu',
    'relu6',
    'pow',
    'stanh',
    'hard_sigmoid',
    'swish',
    'prelu',
    'brelu',
    'leaky_relu',
    'soft_relu',
    'flatten',
    'sequence_mask',
    'stack',
    'pad2d',
    'unstack',
    'sequence_enumerate',
    'expand',
    'sequence_concat',
    'scale',
    'elementwise_add',
    'elementwise_div',
    'elementwise_sub',
    'elementwise_mul',
    'elementwise_max',
    'elementwise_min',
    'elementwise_pow',
    'elementwise_mod',
    'elementwise_floordiv',
    'uniform_random_batch_size_like',
    'gaussian_random',
    'sampling_id',
    'gaussian_random_batch_size_like',
    'sum',
    'slice',
    'shape',
    'rank',
    'logical_and',
    'logical_or',
    'logical_xor',
    'logical_not',
    'clip',
    'clip_by_norm',
    'mean',
    'mul',
    'sigmoid_cross_entropy_with_logits',
    'maxout',
    'space_to_depth',
    'affine_grid',
    'sequence_reverse',
    'affine_channel',
    'similarity_focus',
    'hash',
    'grid_sampler',
    'log_loss',
    'add_position_encoding',
    'bilinear_tensor_product',
    'merge_selected_rows',
    'get_tensor_from_selected_rows',
    'lstm',
    'shuffle_channel',
    'temporal_shift',
    'py_func',
    'psroi_pool',
    'teacher_student_sigmoid_loss',
    'huber_loss',
    'kldiv_loss',
    'tree_conv',
    'npair_loss',
    'pixel_shuffle',
    'fsp_matrix',
    'continuous_value_model',
    'where',
    'sign',
    'deformable_conv',
    'deformable_roi_pooling',
]

kIgnoreIndex = -100


[docs]def fc(input, size, num_flatten_dims=1, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, act=None, is_test=False, name=None): """ **Fully Connected Layer** This function creates a fully connected layer in the network. It can take one or multiple tensors as its inputs(input can be a list of Variable, see Args in detail). It creates a variable called weights for each input tensor, which represents a fully connected weight matrix from each input unit to each output unit. The fully connected layer multiplies each input tensor with its corresponding weight to produce an output Tensor with shape [M, `size`], where M is batch size. If multiple input tensors are given, the results of multiple output tensors with shape [M, `size`] will be summed up. If bias_attr is not None, a bias variable will be created and added to the output. Finally, if activation is not None, it will be applied to the output as well. When the input is single tensor: .. math:: Out = Act({XW + b}) When the input are multiple tensors: .. math:: Out = Act({\sum_{i=0}^{N-1}X_iW_i + b}) In the above equation: * :math:`N`: Number of the input. N equals to len(input) if input is list of Variable. * :math:`X_i`: The i-th input tensor. * :math:`W_i`: The i-th weights matrix corresponding i-th input tensor. * :math:`b`: The bias parameter created by this layer (if needed). * :math:`Act`: The activation function. * :math:`Out`: The output tensor. See below for an example. .. code-block:: text Given: data_1.data = [[[0.1, 0.2], [0.3, 0.4]]] data_1.shape = (1, 2, 2) # 1 is batch_size data_2 = [[[0.1, 0.2, 0.3]]] data_2.shape = (1, 1, 3) out = fluid.layers.fc(input=[data_1, data_2], size=2) Then: out.data = [[0.18669507, 0.1893476]] out.shape = (1, 2) Args: input (Variable|list of Variable): The input tensor(s) of this layer, and the dimension of the input tensor(s) is at least 2. size(int): The number of output units in this layer. num_flatten_dims (int, default 1): The fc layer can accept an input tensor with more than two dimensions. If this happens, the multidimensional tensor will first be flattened into a 2-dimensional matrix. The parameter `num_flatten_dims` determines how the input tensor is flattened: the first `num_flatten_dims` (inclusive, index starts from 1) dimensions will be flatten to form the first dimension of the final matrix (height of the matrix), and the rest `rank(X) - num_flatten_dims` dimensions are flattened to form the second dimension of the final matrix (width of the matrix). For example, suppose `X` is a 5-dimensional tensor with a shape [2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and `num_flatten_dims` = 3. Then, the flattened matrix will have a shape [2 x 3 x 4, 5 x 6] = [24, 30]. param_attr (ParamAttr|list of ParamAttr, default None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of this layer. bias_attr (ParamAttr|list of ParamAttr, default None): The parameter attribute for the bias of this layer. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. act (str, default None): Activation to be applied to the output of this layer. is_test(bool): A flag indicating whether execution is in test phase. name (str, default None): The name of this layer. Returns: Variable: The transformation result. Raises: ValueError: If rank of the input tensor is less than 2. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # when input is single tensor data = fluid.layers.data(name="data", shape=[32, 32], dtype="float32") fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=data, size=1000, act="tanh") # when input are multiple tensors data_1 = fluid.layers.data(name="data_1", shape=[32, 32], dtype="float32") data_2 = fluid.layers.data(name="data_2", shape=[24, 36], dtype="float32") fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=[data_1, data_2], size=1000, act="tanh") """ helper = LayerHelper("fc", **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() mul_results = [] for input_var, param_attr in helper.iter_inputs_and_params(): input_shape = input_var.shape param_shape = [ reduce(lambda a, b: a * b, input_shape[num_flatten_dims:], 1) ] + [size] w = helper.create_parameter( attr=param_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, is_bias=False) tmp = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="mul", inputs={"X": input_var, "Y": w}, outputs={"Out": tmp}, attrs={"x_num_col_dims": num_flatten_dims, "y_num_col_dims": 1}) mul_results.append(tmp) if len(mul_results) == 1: pre_bias = mul_results[0] else: pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="sum", inputs={"X": mul_results}, outputs={"Out": pre_bias}, attrs={"use_mkldnn": False}) # add bias pre_activation = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias, dim_start=num_flatten_dims) # add activation return helper.append_activation(pre_activation)
[docs]def embedding(input, size, is_sparse=False, is_distributed=False, padding_idx=None, param_attr=None, dtype='float32'): """ **Embedding Layer** This layer is used to lookup embeddings of IDs, provided by :attr:`input`, in a lookup table. The result of this lookup is the embedding of each ID in the :attr:`input`. All the input variables are passed in as local variables to the LayerHelper constructor. Args: input(Variable): The tensor variable containing the IDs. size(tuple|list): The shape of the look up table parameter. It should have two elements which indicate the size of the dictionary of embeddings and the size of each embedding vector respectively. is_sparse(bool): The flag indicating whether to use sparse update. is_distributed(bool): Whether to run lookup table from remote parameter server. padding_idx(int|long|None): If :attr:`None`, it makes no effect to lookup. Otherwise the given :attr:`padding_idx` indicates padding the output with zeros whenever lookup encounters it in :attr:`input`. If :math:`padding_idx < 0`, the :attr:`padding_idx` to use in lookup is :math:`size[0] + dim`. param_attr(ParamAttr): Parameters for this layer dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): The type of data : float32, float_16, int etc Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the embeddings of the \ supplied inputs. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='sequence', shape=[1], dtype='int64', lod_level=1) emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[128, 64]) """ helper = LayerHelper('embedding', **locals()) remote_prefetch = is_sparse and (not is_distributed) if remote_prefetch: assert is_sparse is True and is_distributed is False w = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=size, dtype=dtype, is_bias=False) tmp = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) padding_idx = -1 if padding_idx is None else padding_idx if padding_idx >= 0 else ( size[0] + padding_idx) helper.append_op( type='lookup_table', inputs={'Ids': input, 'W': w}, outputs={'Out': tmp}, attrs={ 'is_sparse': is_sparse, 'is_distributed': is_distributed, 'remote_prefetch': remote_prefetch, 'padding_idx': padding_idx }) return tmp
@templatedoc(op_type="lstm")
[docs]def dynamic_lstm(input, size, h_0=None, c_0=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_peepholes=True, is_reverse=False, gate_activation='sigmoid', cell_activation='tanh', candidate_activation='tanh', dtype='float32', name=None): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): ${input_comment} size (int): 4 * hidden size. h_0(Variable): The initial hidden state is an optional input, default is zero. This is a tensor with shape (N x D), where N is the batch size and D is the hidden size. c_0(Variable): The initial cell state is an optional input, default is zero. This is a tensor with shape (N x D), where N is the batch size. `h_0` and `c_0` can be NULL but only at the same time. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable hidden-hidden weights. - Weights = {:math:`W_{ch}, W_{ih}, \ W_{fh}, W_{oh}`} - The shape is (D x 4D), where D is the hidden size. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_lstm will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|None): The bias attribute for the learnable bias weights, which contains two parts, input-hidden bias weights and peephole connections weights if setting `use_peepholes` to `True`. 1. `use_peepholes = False` - Biases = {:math:`b_c, b_i, b_f, b_o`}. - The shape is (1 x 4D). 2. `use_peepholes = True` - Biases = { :math:`b_c, b_i, b_f, b_o, W_{ic}, \ W_{fc}, W_{oc}`}. - The shape is (1 x 7D). If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_lstm will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_peepholes (bool): ${use_peepholes_comment} is_reverse (bool): ${is_reverse_comment} gate_activation (str): ${gate_activation_comment} cell_activation (str): ${cell_activation_comment} candidate_activation (str): ${candidate_activation_comment} dtype (str): Data type. Choices = ["float32", "float64"], default "float32". name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: tuple: The hidden state, and cell state of LSTM. The shape of both \ is (T x D), and lod is the same with the `input`. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid emb_dim = 256 vocab_size = 10000 hidden_dim = 512 data = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[1], dtype='int32', lod_level=1) emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[vocab_size, emb_dim], is_sparse=True) forward_proj = fluid.layers.fc(input=emb, size=hidden_dim * 4, bias_attr=False) forward, _ = fluid.layers.dynamic_lstm( input=forward_proj, size=hidden_dim * 4, use_peepholes=False) """ assert in_dygraph_mode( ) is not True, "please use lstm instead of dynamic_lstm in dygraph mode!" assert bias_attr is not False, "bias_attr should not be False in dynamic_lstmp." helper = LayerHelper('lstm', **locals()) size = size // 4 weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[size, 4 * size], dtype=dtype) bias_size = [1, 7 * size] if not use_peepholes: bias_size[1] = 4 * size bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=bias_size, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) hidden = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) cell = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_gate = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_cell_pre_act = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) inputs = {'Input': input, 'Weight': weight, 'Bias': bias} batch_size = input.shape[0] if h_0: assert h_0.shape == (batch_size, size), \ 'The shape of h0 should be (batch_size, %d)' % size inputs['H0'] = h_0 if c_0: assert c_0.shape == (batch_size, size), \ 'The shape of c0 should be (batch_size, %d)' % size inputs['C0'] = c_0 helper.append_op( type='lstm', inputs=inputs, outputs={ 'Hidden': hidden, 'Cell': cell, 'BatchGate': batch_gate, 'BatchCellPreAct': batch_cell_pre_act }, attrs={ 'use_peepholes': use_peepholes, 'is_reverse': is_reverse, 'gate_activation': gate_activation, 'cell_activation': cell_activation, 'candidate_activation': candidate_activation }) return hidden, cell
[docs]def lstm(input, init_h, init_c, max_len, hidden_size, num_layers, dropout_prob=0.0, is_bidirec=False, is_test=False, name=None, default_initializer=None, seed=-1): """ If Device is GPU, This op will use cudnn LSTM implementation A four-gate Long Short-Term Memory network with no peephole connections. In the forward pass the output ht and cell output ct for a given iteration can be computed from the recurrent input ht-1, the cell input ct-1 and the previous layer input xt given matrices W, R and biases bW, bR from the following equations: .. math:: i_t &= \sigma(W_{ix}x_{t} + W_{ih}h_{t-1} + bx_i + bh_i) f_t &= \sigma(W_{fx}x_{t} + W_{fh}h_{t-1} + bx_f + bh_f) o_t &= \sigma(W_{ox}x_{t} + W_{oh}h_{t-1} + bx_o + bh_o) \\tilde{c_t} &= tanh(W_{cx}x_t + W_{ch}h_{t-1} + bx_c + bh_c) c_t &= f_t \odot c_{t-1} + i_t \odot \\tilde{c_t} h_t &= o_t \odot tanh(c_t) - $W$ terms denote weight matrices (e.g. $W_{ix}$ is the matrix of weights from the input gate to the input) - The b terms denote bias vectors ($bx_i$ and $bh_i$ are the input gate bias vector). - sigmoid is the logistic sigmoid function. - $i, f, o$ and $c$ are the input gate, forget gate, output gate, and cell activation vectors, respectively, all of which have the same size as the cell output activation vector $h$. - The :math:`\odot` is the element-wise product of the vectors. - :math:`tanh` is the activation functions. - :math:`\\tilde{c_t}` is also called candidate hidden state, which is computed based on the current input and the previous hidden state. Where sigmoid is the sigmoid operator: :math:`sigmoid(x) = 1 / (1 + e^{-x})` , * represents a point-wise multiplication, X represensts a matrix multiplication Args: input (Variable): LSTM input tensor, shape MUST be ( seq_len x batch_size x input_size ) init_h(Variable): The initial hidden state of the LSTM This is a tensor with shape ( num_layers x batch_size x hidden_size) if is_bidirec = True, shape should be ( num_layers*2 x batch_size x hidden_size) init_c(Variable): The initial cell state of the LSTM. This is a tensor with shape ( num_layers x batch_size x hidden_size ) if is_bidirec = True, shape should be ( num_layers*2 x batch_size x hidden_size) max_len (int): max length of LSTM. the first dim of input tensor CAN NOT greater than max_len hidden_size (int): hidden size of the LSTM num_layers (int): total layers number of the LSTM dropout_prob(float|0.0): dropout prob, dropout ONLY work between rnn layers, NOT between time steps There is NO dropout work on rnn output of the last RNN layers is_bidirec (bool): If it is bidirectional is_test (bool): If it is in test phrase name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. default_initializer(Initialize|None): Where use initializer to initialize the Weight If set None, defaule initializer will be used seed(int): Seed for dropout in LSTM, If it's -1, dropout will use random seed Returns: rnn_out(Tensor),last_h(Tensor),last_c(Tensor): Three tensors, rnn_out, last_h, last_c: - rnn_out is result of LSTM hidden, shape is (seq_len x batch_size x hidden_size) \ if is_bidirec set to True, shape will be ( seq_len x batch_sze x hidden_size*2) - last_h is the hidden state of the last step of LSTM \ shape is ( num_layers x batch_size x hidden_size ) \ if is_bidirec set to True, shape will be ( num_layers*2 x batch_size x hidden_size) - last_c(Tensor): the cell state of the last step of LSTM \ shape is ( num_layers x batch_size x hidden_size ) \ if is_bidirec set to True, shape will be ( num_layers*2 x batch_size x hidden_size) Examples: .. code-block:: python emb_dim = 256 vocab_size = 10000 data = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[-1, 100, 1], dtype='int32') emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[vocab_size, emb_dim], is_sparse=True) batch_size = 20 max_len = 100 dropout_prob = 0.2 input_size = 100 hidden_size = 150 num_layers = 1 init_h = layers.fill_constant( [num_layers, batch_size, hidden_size], 'float32', 0.0 ) init_c = layers.fill_constant( [num_layers, batch_size, hidden_size], 'float32', 0.0 ) rnn_out, last_h, last_c = layers.lstm( emb, init_h, init_c, \ max_len, hidden_size, num_layers, \ dropout_prob=dropout_prob) """ helper = LayerHelper('cudnn_lstm', **locals()) dtype = input.dtype input_shape = list(input.shape) input_size = input_shape[-1] weight_size = 0 for i in range(num_layers): if i == 0: input_weight_size = (input_size * hidden_size) * 4 else: if is_bidirec: input_weight_size = (hidden_size * 2 * hidden_size) * 4 else: input_weight_size = (hidden_size * hidden_size) * 4 hidden_weight_size = (hidden_size * hidden_size) * 4 if is_bidirec: weight_size += (input_weight_size + hidden_weight_size) * 2 weight_size += hidden_size * 8 * 2 else: weight_size += input_weight_size + hidden_weight_size weight_size += hidden_size * 8 weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[weight_size], dtype=dtype, default_initializer=default_initializer) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) last_h = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) last_c = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) cache = helper.create_variable( persistable=True, type=core.VarDesc.VarType.RAW, stop_gradient=True) helper.append_op( type='cudnn_lstm', inputs={ 'Input': input, 'InitH': init_h, 'InitC': init_c, 'W': weight, 'Cache': cache, }, outputs={ 'Out': out, 'last_h': last_h, 'last_c': last_c, }, attrs={ 'max_len': max_len, 'is_bidirec': is_bidirec, 'input_size': input_size, 'hidden_size': hidden_size, 'num_layers': num_layers, 'is_test': is_test, 'dropout_prob': dropout_prob, 'seed': seed, }) return out, last_h, last_c
[docs]def dynamic_lstmp(input, size, proj_size, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_peepholes=True, is_reverse=False, gate_activation='sigmoid', cell_activation='tanh', candidate_activation='tanh', proj_activation='tanh', dtype='float32', name=None, h_0=None, c_0=None, cell_clip=None, proj_clip=None): """ **Dynamic LSTMP Layer** LSTMP (LSTM with recurrent projection) layer has a separate projection layer after the LSTM layer, projecting the original hidden state to a lower-dimensional one, which is proposed to reduce the number of total parameters and furthermore computational complexity for the LSTM, espeacially for the case that the size of output units is relative large (https://research.google.com/pubs/archive/43905.pdf). The formula is as follows: .. math:: i_t & = \sigma(W_{ix}x_{t} + W_{ir}r_{t-1} + W_{ic}c_{t-1} + b_i) f_t & = \sigma(W_{fx}x_{t} + W_{fr}r_{t-1} + W_{fc}c_{t-1} + b_f) \\tilde{c_t} & = act_g(W_{cx}x_t + W_{cr}r_{t-1} + b_c) o_t & = \sigma(W_{ox}x_{t} + W_{or}r_{t-1} + W_{oc}c_t + b_o) c_t & = f_t \odot c_{t-1} + i_t \odot \\tilde{c_t} h_t & = o_t \odot act_h(c_t) r_t & = \overline{act_h}(W_{rh}h_t) In the above formula: * :math:`W`: Denotes weight matrices (e.g. :math:`W_{xi}` is \ the matrix of weights from the input gate to the input). * :math:`W_{ic}`, :math:`W_{fc}`, :math:`W_{oc}`: Diagonal weight \ matrices for peephole connections. In our implementation, \ we use vectors to represent these diagonal weight matrices. * :math:`b`: Denotes bias vectors (e.g. :math:`b_i` is the input gate \ bias vector). * :math:`\sigma`: The activation, such as logistic sigmoid function. * :math:`i, f, o` and :math:`c`: The input gate, forget gate, output \ gate, and cell activation vectors, respectively, all of which have \ the same size as the cell output activation vector :math:`h`. * :math:`h`: The hidden state. * :math:`r`: The recurrent projection of the hidden state. * :math:`\\tilde{c_t}`: The candidate hidden state, whose \ computation is based on the current input and previous hidden state. * :math:`\odot`: The element-wise product of the vectors. * :math:`act_g` and :math:`act_h`: The cell input and cell output \ activation functions and `tanh` is usually used for them. * :math:`\overline{act_h}`: The activation function for the projection \ output, usually using `identity` or same as :math:`act_h`. Set `use_peepholes` to `False` to disable peephole connection. The formula is omitted here, please refer to the paper http://www.bioinf.jku.at/publications/older/2604.pdf for details. Note that these :math:`W_{xi}x_{t}, W_{xf}x_{t}, W_{xc}x_{t}, W_{xo}x_{t}` operations on the input :math:`x_{t}` are NOT included in this operator. Users can choose to use fully-connected layer before LSTMP layer. Args: input(Variable): The input of dynamic_lstmp layer, which supports variable-time length input sequence. The underlying tensor in this Variable is a matrix with shape (T X 4D), where T is the total time steps in this mini-batch, D is the hidden size. size(int): 4 * hidden size. proj_size(int): The size of projection output. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable hidden-hidden weight and projection weight. - Hidden-hidden weight = {:math:`W_{ch}, W_{ih}, \ W_{fh}, W_{oh}`}. - The shape of hidden-hidden weight is (P x 4D), where P is the projection size and D the hidden size. - Projection weight = {:math:`W_{rh}`}. - The shape of projection weight is (D x P). If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_lstm will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr(ParamAttr|None): The bias attribute for the learnable bias weights, which contains two parts, input-hidden bias weights and peephole connections weights if setting `use_peepholes` to `True`. 1. `use_peepholes = False` - Biases = {:math:`b_c, b_i, b_f, b_o`}. - The shape is (1 x 4D). 2. `use_peepholes = True` - Biases = { :math:`b_c, b_i, b_f, b_o, W_{ic}, \ W_{fc}, W_{oc}`}. - The shape is (1 x 7D). If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_lstm will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_peepholes(bool): Whether to enable diagonal/peephole connections, default `True`. is_reverse(bool): Whether to compute reversed LSTM, default `False`. gate_activation(str): The activation for input gate, forget gate and output gate. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "sigmoid". cell_activation(str): The activation for cell output. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "tanh". candidate_activation(str): The activation for candidate hidden state. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "tanh". proj_activation(str): The activation for projection output. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "tanh". dtype(str): Data type. Choices = ["float32", "float64"], default "float32". name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. h_0(Variable): The initial hidden state is an optional input, default is zero. This is a tensor with shape (N x D), where N is the batch size and D is the projection size. c_0(Variable): The initial cell state is an optional input, default is zero. This is a tensor with shape (N x D), where N is the batch size. `h_0` and `c_0` can be NULL but only at the same time. cell_clip(float): If provided the cell state is clipped by this value prior to the cell output activation. proj_clip(float): If `num_proj > 0` and `proj_clip` is provided, then the projected values are clipped elementwise to within `[-proj_clip, proj_clip]`. Returns: tuple: A tuple of two output variable: the projection of hidden state, \ and cell state of LSTMP. The shape of projection is (T x P), \ for the cell state which is (T x D), and both LoD is the same \ with the `input`. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dict_dim, emb_dim = 128, 64 data = fluid.layers.data(name='sequence', shape=[1], dtype='int32', lod_level=1) emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[dict_dim, emb_dim]) hidden_dim, proj_dim = 512, 256 fc_out = fluid.layers.fc(input=emb, size=hidden_dim * 4, act=None, bias_attr=None) proj_out, _ = fluid.layers.dynamic_lstmp(input=fc_out, size=hidden_dim * 4, proj_size=proj_dim, use_peepholes=False, is_reverse=True, cell_activation="tanh", proj_activation="tanh") """ assert in_dygraph_mode( ) is not True, "please use lstm instead of dynamic_lstmp in dygraph mode!" assert bias_attr is not False, "bias_attr should not be False in dynamic_lstmp." helper = LayerHelper('lstmp', **locals()) size = size // 4 weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[proj_size, 4 * size], dtype=dtype) proj_weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[size, proj_size], dtype=dtype) bias_size = [1, 7 * size] if not use_peepholes: bias_size[1] = 4 * size bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=bias_size, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) projection = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) cell = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) ordered_proj0 = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_hidden = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_gate = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_cell_pre_act = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) inputs = { 'Input': input, 'Weight': weight, 'ProjWeight': proj_weight, 'Bias': bias } batch_size = input.shape[0] if h_0: assert h_0.shape == (batch_size, proj_size), \ 'The shape of h0 should be (batch_size, %d)' % proj_size inputs['H0'] = h_0 if c_0: assert c_0.shape == (batch_size, size), \ 'The shape of c0 should be (batch_size, %d)' % size inputs['C0'] = c_0 if cell_clip: assert cell_clip >= 0, "cell_clip should not be negtive." if proj_clip: assert proj_clip >= 0, "proj_clip should not be negtive." helper.append_op( type='lstmp', inputs=inputs, outputs={ 'Projection': projection, 'Cell': cell, 'BatchHidden': batch_hidden, 'BatchGate': batch_gate, 'BatchCellPreAct': batch_cell_pre_act }, attrs={ 'use_peepholes': use_peepholes, 'cell_clip': cell_clip, 'proj_clip': proj_clip, 'is_reverse': is_reverse, 'gate_activation': gate_activation, 'cell_activation': cell_activation, 'candidate_activation': candidate_activation, 'proj_activation': proj_activation }) return projection, cell
[docs]def dynamic_gru(input, size, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, is_reverse=False, gate_activation='sigmoid', candidate_activation='tanh', h_0=None, origin_mode=False): """ **Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) Layer** if origin_mode is False, then the equation of a gru step is from paper `Empirical Evaluation of Gated Recurrent Neural Networks on Sequence Modeling <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.3555.pdf>`_ . The formula is as follows: .. math:: u_t & = act_g(W_{ux}x_{t} + W_{uh}h_{t-1} + b_u) r_t & = act_g(W_{rx}x_{t} + W_{rh}h_{t-1} + b_r) \\tilde{h_t} & = act_c(W_{cx}x_{t} + W_{ch}(r_t \odot h_{t-1}) + b_c) h_t & = (1-u_t) \odot h_{t-1} + u_t \odot \\tilde{h_t} if origin_mode is True then the equation is from paper Learning Phrase Representations using RNN Encoder-Decoder for Statistical Machine Translation <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.1078.pdf>`_ .. math:: u_t & = act_g(W_{ux}x_{t} + W_{uh}h_{t-1} + b_u) r_t & = act_g(W_{rx}x_{t} + W_{rh}h_{t-1} + b_r) \\tilde{h_t} & = act_c(W_{cx}x_{t} + W_{ch}(r_t \odot h_{t-1}) + b_c) h_t & = u_t \odot h_{t-1} + (1-u_t) \odot \\tilde{h_t} The :math:`\odot` is the element-wise product of the vectors. :math:`act_g` is the update gate and reset gate activation function and :math:`sigmoid` is usually used for it. :math:`act_c` is the activation function for candidate hidden state and :math:`tanh` is usually used for it. Note that these :math:`W_{ux}x_{t}, W_{rx}x_{t}, W_{cx}x_{t}` operations on the input :math:`x_{t}` are NOT included in this operator. Users can choose to use fully-connect layer before GRU layer. Args: input(Variable): The input of dynamic_gru layer, which supports variable-time length input sequence. The underlying tensor in this Variable is a matrix with shape :math:`(T \\times 3D)`, where :math:`T` is the total time steps in this mini-batch, :math:`D` is the hidden size. size(int): The dimension of the gru cell. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable hidden-hidden weight matrix. Note: - The shape of the weight matrix is :math:`(T \\times 3D)`, where :math:`D` is the hidden size. - All elements in the weight matrix can be divided into two parts. The first part are weights of the update gate and reset gate with shape :math:`(D \\times 2D)`, and the second part are weights for candidate hidden state with shape :math:`(D \\times D)`. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_gru will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of GRU.Note that the bias with :math:`(1 \\times 3D)` concatenates the bias in the update gate, reset gate and candidate calculations. If it is set to False, no bias will be applied to the update gate, reset gate and candidate calculations. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, dynamic_gru will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. is_reverse(bool): Whether to compute reversed GRU, default :attr:`False`. gate_activation(str): The activation for update gate and reset gate. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "sigmoid". candidate_activation(str): The activation for candidate hidden state. Choices = ["sigmoid", "tanh", "relu", "identity"], default "tanh". h_0 (Variable): This is initial hidden state. If not set, default is zero. This is a tensor with shape (N x D), where N is the number of total time steps of input mini-batch feature and D is the hidden size. Returns: Variable: The hidden state of GRU. The shape is :math:`(T \\times D)`, \ and sequence length is the same with the input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dict_dim, emb_dim = 128, 64 data = fluid.layers.data(name='sequence', shape=[1], dtype='int32', lod_level=1) emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[dict_dim, emb_dim]) hidden_dim = 512 x = fluid.layers.fc(input=emb, size=hidden_dim * 3) hidden = fluid.layers.dynamic_gru(input=x, size=hidden_dim) """ assert in_dygraph_mode( ) is not True, "please use gru instead of dynamic_gru in dygraph mode!" helper = LayerHelper('gru', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[size, 3 * size], dtype=dtype) bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=[1, 3 * size], dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) batch_size = input.shape[0] inputs = {'Input': input, 'Weight': weight, 'Bias': bias} if h_0: assert h_0.shape == ( batch_size, size ), 'The shape of h0 should be(batch_size, %d)' % size inputs['H0'] = h_0 hidden = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_gate = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_reset_hidden_prev = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) batch_hidden = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='gru', inputs=inputs, outputs={ 'Hidden': hidden, 'BatchGate': batch_gate, 'BatchResetHiddenPrev': batch_reset_hidden_prev, 'BatchHidden': batch_hidden }, attrs={ 'is_reverse': is_reverse, 'gate_activation': gate_activation, 'activation': candidate_activation, 'origin_mode': origin_mode }) return hidden
[docs]def gru_unit(input, hidden, size, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, activation='tanh', gate_activation='sigmoid', origin_mode=False): """ **GRU unit layer** if origin_mode is True, then the equation of a gru step is from paper `Learning Phrase Representations using RNN Encoder-Decoder for Statistical Machine Translation <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.1078.pdf>`_ .. math:: u_t & = actGate(xu_{t} + W_u h_{t-1} + b_u) r_t & = actGate(xr_{t} + W_r h_{t-1} + b_r) m_t & = actNode(xm_t + W_c dot(r_t, h_{t-1}) + b_m) h_t & = dot(u_t, h_{t-1}) + dot((1-u_t), m_t) if origin_mode is False, then the equation of a gru step is from paper `Empirical Evaluation of Gated Recurrent Neural Networks on Sequence Modeling <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.3555.pdf>`_ .. math:: u_t & = actGate(xu_{t} + W_u h_{t-1} + b_u) r_t & = actGate(xr_{t} + W_r h_{t-1} + b_r) m_t & = actNode(xm_t + W_c dot(r_t, h_{t-1}) + b_m) h_t & = dot((1-u_t), h_{t-1}) + dot(u_t, m_t) The inputs of gru unit includes :math:`z_t`, :math:`h_{t-1}`. In terms of the equation above, the :math:`z_t` is split into 3 parts - :math:`xu_t`, :math:`xr_t` and :math:`xm_t`. This means that in order to implement a full GRU unit operator for an input, a fully connected layer has to be applied, such that :math:`z_t = W_{fc}x_t`. The terms :math:`u_t` and :math:`r_t` represent the update and reset gates of the GRU cell. Unlike LSTM, GRU has one lesser gate. However, there is an intermediate candidate hidden output, which is denoted by :math:`m_t`. This layer has three outputs :math:`h_t`, :math:`dot(r_t, h_{t-1})` and concatenation of :math:`u_t`, :math:`r_t` and :math:`m_t`. Args: input (Variable): The fc transformed input value of current step. hidden (Variable): The hidden value of gru unit from previous step. size (integer): The input dimension value. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable hidden-hidden weight matrix. Note: - The shape of the weight matrix is :math:`(T \\times 3D)`, where :math:`D` is the hidden size. - All elements in the weight matrix can be divided into two parts. The first part are weights of the update gate and reset gate with shape :math:`(D \\times 2D)`, and the second part are weights for candidate hidden state with shape :math:`(D \\times D)`. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, gru_unit will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of GRU.Note that the bias with :math:`(1 \\times 3D)` concatenates the bias in the update gate, reset gate and candidate calculations. If it is set to False, no bias will be applied to the update gate, reset gate and candidate calculations. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, gru_unit will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. activation (string): The activation type for cell (actNode). Default: 'tanh' gate_activation (string): The activation type for gates (actGate). Default: 'sigmoid' Returns: tuple: The hidden value, reset-hidden value and gate values. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dict_dim, emb_dim = 128, 64 data = fluid.layers.data(name='step_data', shape=[1], dtype='int32') emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[dict_dim, emb_dim]) hidden_dim = 512 x = fluid.layers.fc(input=emb, size=hidden_dim * 3) pre_hidden = fluid.layers.data( name='pre_hidden', shape=[hidden_dim], dtype='float32') hidden = fluid.layers.gru_unit( input=x, hidden=pre_hidden, size=hidden_dim * 3) """ activation_dict = dict( identity=0, sigmoid=1, tanh=2, relu=3, ) activation = activation_dict[activation] gate_activation = activation_dict[gate_activation] helper = LayerHelper('gru_unit', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() size = size // 3 # create weight weight = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[size, 3 * size], dtype=dtype) gate = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) reset_hidden_pre = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) updated_hidden = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) inputs = {'Input': input, 'HiddenPrev': hidden, 'Weight': weight} # create bias if helper.bias_attr: bias_size = [1, 3 * size] bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=bias_size, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) inputs['Bias'] = bias helper.append_op( type='gru_unit', inputs=inputs, outputs={ 'Gate': gate, 'ResetHiddenPrev': reset_hidden_pre, 'Hidden': updated_hidden, }, attrs={ 'activation': 2, # tanh 'gate_activation': 1, # sigmoid }) return updated_hidden, reset_hidden_pre, gate
@templatedoc()
[docs]def linear_chain_crf(input, label, param_attr=None): """ Linear Chain CRF. ${comment} Args: input(${emission_type}): ${emission_comment} input(${transition_type}): ${transition_comment} label(${label_type}): ${label_comment} param_attr(ParamAttr): The attribute of the learnable parameter. Returns: output(${emission_exps_type}): ${emission_exps_comment} \n output(${transition_exps_type}): ${transition_exps_comment} \n output(${log_likelihood_type}): ${log_likelihood_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid emission = fluid.layers.data(name='emission', shape=[1000], dtype='float32') target = fluid.layers.data(name='target', shape=[1], dtype='int32') crf_cost = fluid.layers.linear_chain_crf( input=emission, label=target, param_attr=fluid.ParamAttr( name='crfw', learning_rate=0.2)) """ helper = LayerHelper('linear_chain_crf', **locals()) size = input.shape[1] transition = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[size + 2, size], dtype=helper.input_dtype()) alpha = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype()) emission_exps = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype()) transition_exps = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype()) log_likelihood = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype()) helper.append_op( type='linear_chain_crf', inputs={"Emission": [input], "Transition": transition, "Label": label}, outputs={ "Alpha": [alpha], "EmissionExps": [emission_exps], "TransitionExps": transition_exps, "LogLikelihood": log_likelihood }) return log_likelihood
@templatedoc()
[docs]def crf_decoding(input, param_attr, label=None): """ ${comment} Args: input(${emission_type}): ${emission_comment} param_attr(ParamAttr): The parameter attribute for training. label(${label_type}): ${label_comment} Returns: Variable: ${viterbi_path_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid images = fluid.layers.data(name='pixel', shape=[784], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[1], dtype='int32') hidden = fluid.layers.fc(input=images, size=2) crf = fluid.layers.linear_chain_crf(input=hidden, label=label, param_attr=fluid.ParamAttr(name="crfw")) crf_decode = fluid.layers.crf_decoding(input=hidden, param_attr=fluid.ParamAttr(name="crfw")) """ helper = LayerHelper('crf_decoding', **locals()) transition = helper.get_parameter(param_attr.name) viterbi_path = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype()) helper.append_op( type='crf_decoding', inputs={"Emission": [input], "Transition": transition, "Label": label}, outputs={"ViterbiPath": [viterbi_path]}) return viterbi_path
@templatedoc()
[docs]def cos_sim(X, Y): """ ${comment} Args: X (Variable): ${x_comment}. Y (Variable): ${y_comment}. Returns: Variable: the output of cosine(X, Y). Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[3, 7], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[1, 7], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) out = fluid.layers.cos_sim(x, y) """ helper = LayerHelper('cos_sim', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=X.dtype) xnorm = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=X.dtype) ynorm = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=X.dtype) helper.append_op( type='cos_sim', inputs={'X': [X], 'Y': [Y]}, outputs={'Out': [out], 'XNorm': [xnorm], 'YNorm': [ynorm]}) return out
[docs]def dropout(x, dropout_prob, is_test=False, seed=None, name=None, dropout_implementation="downgrade_in_infer"): """ Computes dropout. Drop or keep each element of `x` independently. Dropout is a regularization technique for reducing overfitting by preventing neuron co-adaption during training. The dropout operator randomly sets (according to the given dropout probability) the outputs of some units to zero, while others are remain unchanged. dropout op can be removed from the program to make the program more efficient. Args: x (Variable): The input tensor variable. dropout_prob (float): Probability of setting units to zero. is_test (bool): A flag indicating whether it is in test phrase or not. seed (int): A Python integer used to create random seeds. If this parameter is set to None, a random seed is used. NOTE: If an integer seed is given, always the same output units will be dropped. DO NOT use a fixed seed in training. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. dropout_implementation(string): ['downgrade_in_infer'(default)|'upscale_in_train'] 1. downgrade_in_infer(default), downgrade the outcome at inference - train: out = input * mask - inference: out = input * (1.0 - dropout_prob) (mask is a tensor same shape with input, value is 0 or 1 ratio of 0 is dropout_prob) 2. upscale_in_train, upscale the outcome at training time - train: out = input * mask / ( 1.0 - dropout_prob ) - inference: out = input (mask is a tensor same shape with input, value is 0 or 1 ratio of 0 is dropout_prob) Returns: Variable: A tensor variable is the shape with `x`. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="data", shape=[32, 32], dtype="float32") droped = fluid.layers.dropout(x, dropout_prob=0.5) """ helper = LayerHelper('dropout', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) mask = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=core.VarDesc.VarType.UINT8, stop_gradient=True) if (seed is None or seed == 0) and helper.main_program.random_seed != 0: seed = helper.main_program.random_seed helper.append_op( type='dropout', inputs={'X': [x]}, outputs={'Out': [out], 'Mask': [mask]}, attrs={ 'dropout_prob': dropout_prob, 'is_test': is_test, 'fix_seed': seed is not None, 'seed': seed if seed is not None else 0, 'dropout_implementation': dropout_implementation, }) return out
[docs]def cross_entropy(input, label, soft_label=False, ignore_index=kIgnoreIndex): """ **Cross Entropy Layer** This layer computes the cross entropy between `input` and `label`. It supports both standard cross-entropy and soft-label cross-entropy loss computation. 1) One-hot cross-entropy: `soft_label = False`, `Label[i, 0]` indicates the class index for sample i: .. math:: Y[i] = -\log(X[i, Label[i]]) 2) Soft-label cross-entropy: `soft_label = True`, `Label[i, j]` indicates the soft label of class j for sample i: .. math:: Y[i] = \sum_j{-Label[i, j] * log(X[i, j])} Please make sure that in this case the summation of each row of `label` equals one. 3) One-hot cross-entropy with vecterized `label`: As a special case of 2), when each row of 'label' has only one non-zero element which is equal to 1, soft-label cross-entropy degenerates to a one-hot cross-entropy with one-hot label representation. Args: input (Variable|list): a 2-D tensor with shape [N x D], where N is the batch size and D is the number of classes. This input is a probability computed by the previous operator, which is almost always the result of a softmax operator. label (Variable|list): the ground truth which is a 2-D tensor. When `soft_label` is set to `False`, `label` is a tensor<int64> with shape [N x 1]. When `soft_label` is set to `True`, `label` is a tensor<float/double> with shape [N x D]. soft_label (bool): a flag indicating whether to interpretate the given labels as soft labels. Default: `False`. ignore_index (int): Specifies a target value that is ignored and does not contribute to the input gradient. Only valid if soft_label is set to False. Default: kIgnoreIndex Returns: A 2-D tensor with shape [N x 1], the cross entropy loss. Raises: ValueError: 1. the 1st dimension of ``input`` and ``label`` are not equal. 2. when ``soft_label == True``, and the 2nd dimension of ``input`` and ``label`` are not equal. 3. when ``soft_label == False``, and the 2nd dimension of ``label`` is not 1. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid classdim = 7 x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[3, 7], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[3, 1], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) predict = fluid.layers.fc(input=x, size=classdim, act='softmax') cost = fluid.layers.cross_entropy(input=predict, label=label) """ if not soft_label: return cross_entropy2(input, label, ignore_index) helper = LayerHelper('cross_entropy', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='cross_entropy', inputs={'X': [input], 'Label': [label]}, outputs={'Y': [out]}, attrs={"soft_label": soft_label, "ignore_index": ignore_index}) return out
def cross_entropy2(input, label, ignore_index=kIgnoreIndex): helper = LayerHelper('cross_entropy2', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) xshape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) match_x = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='cross_entropy2', inputs={'X': [input], 'Label': [label]}, outputs={'Y': [out], 'MatchX': [match_x], 'XShape': [xshape]}, attrs={'ignore_index': ignore_index}) return out
[docs]def bpr_loss(input, label, name=None): """ **Bayesian Personalized Ranking Loss Operator** This operator belongs to pairwise ranking loss. Label is the desired item. The loss at a given point in one session is defined as: .. math:: Y[i] = 1/(N[i] - 1) * \sum_j{\log(\sigma(X[i, Label[i]]-X[i, j]))} Learn more details by reading paper <session-based recommendations with recurrent neural networks>. Args: input (Variable|list): a 2-D tensor with shape [N x D], where N is the batch size and D is the number of classes. This input is not probability but logits. label (Variable|list): the ground truth which is a 2-D tensor. `label` is a tensor<int64> with shape [N x 1]. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. Returns: A 2-D tensor with shape [N x 1], the bpr loss. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid neg_size = 10 label = fluid.layers.data( name="label", shape=[1], dtype="int64") predict = fluid.layers.data( name="predict", shape=[neg_size + 1], dtype="float32") cost = fluid.layers.bpr_loss(input=predict, label=label) """ helper = LayerHelper('bpr_loss', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='bpr_loss', inputs={'X': [input], 'Label': [label]}, outputs={'Y': [out]}) return out
[docs]def square_error_cost(input, label): """ **Square error cost layer** This layer accepts input predictions and target label and returns the squared error cost. For predictions, :math:`X`, and target labels, :math:`Y`, the equation is: .. math:: Out = (X - Y)^2 In the above equation: * :math:`X`: Input predictions, a tensor. * :math:`Y`: Input labels, a tensor. * :math:`Out`: Output value, same shape with :math:`X`. Args: input (Variable): Input tensor, has predictions. label (Variable): Label tensor, has target labels. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the element-wise squared error \ difference of input and label. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[1], dtype='float32') y_predict = fluid.layers.data(name='y_predict', shape=[1], dtype='float32') cost = fluid.layers.square_error_cost(input=y_predict, label=y) """ helper = LayerHelper('square_error_cost', **locals()) minus_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='elementwise_sub', inputs={'X': [input], 'Y': [label]}, outputs={'Out': [minus_out]}) square_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='square', inputs={'X': [minus_out]}, outputs={'Out': [square_out]}) return square_out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def chunk_eval(input, label, chunk_scheme, num_chunk_types, excluded_chunk_types=None): """ **Chunk Evaluator** This function computes and outputs the precision, recall and F1-score of chunk detection. For some basics of chunking, please refer to `Chunking with Support Vector Machines <https://aclanthology.info/pdf/N/N01/N01-1025.pdf>`_ . ChunkEvalOp computes the precision, recall, and F1-score of chunk detection, and supports IOB, IOE, IOBES and IO (also known as plain) tagging schemes. Here is a NER example of labeling for these tagging schemes: .. code-block:: python ====== ====== ====== ===== == ============ ===== ===== ===== == ========= Li Ming works at Agricultural Bank of China in Beijing. ====== ====== ====== ===== == ============ ===== ===== ===== == ========= IO I-PER I-PER O O I-ORG I-ORG I-ORG I-ORG O I-LOC IOB B-PER I-PER O O B-ORG I-ORG I-ORG I-ORG O B-LOC IOE I-PER E-PER O O I-ORG I-ORG I-ORG E-ORG O E-LOC IOBES B-PER E-PER O O I-ORG I-ORG I-ORG E-ORG O S-LOC ====== ====== ====== ===== == ============ ===== ===== ===== == ========= There are three chunk types(named entity types) including PER(person), ORG(organization) and LOC(LOCATION), and we can see that the labels have the form <tag type>-<chunk type>. Since the calculations actually use label ids rather than labels, extra attention should be paid when mapping labels to ids to make CheckEvalOp work. The key point is that the listed equations are satisfied by ids. .. code-block:: python tag_type = label % num_tag_type chunk_type = label / num_tag_type where `num_tag_type` is the num of tag types in the tagging scheme, `num_chunk_type` is the num of chunk types, and `tag_type` get its value from the following table. .. code-block:: python Scheme Begin Inside End Single plain 0 - - - IOB 0 1 - - IOE - 0 1 - IOBES 0 1 2 3 Still use NER as example, assuming the tagging scheme is IOB while chunk types are ORG, PER and LOC. To satisfy the above equations, the label map can be like this: .. code-block:: python B-ORG 0 I-ORG 1 B-PER 2 I-PER 3 B-LOC 4 I-LOC 5 O 6 It's not hard to verify the equations noting that the num of chunk types is 3 and the num of tag types in IOB scheme is 2. For example, the label id of I-LOC is 5, the tag type id of I-LOC is 1, and the chunk type id of I-LOC is 2, which consistent with the results from the equations. Args: input (Variable): prediction output of the network. label (Variable): label of the test data set. chunk_scheme (str): ${chunk_scheme_comment} num_chunk_types (int): ${num_chunk_types_comment} excluded_chunk_types (list): ${excluded_chunk_types_comment} Returns: tuple: tuple containing: precision, recall, f1_score, num_infer_chunks, num_label_chunks, num_correct_chunks Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dict_size = 10000 label_dict_len = 7 sequence = fluid.layers.data( name='id', shape=[1], lod_level=1, dtype='int64') embedding = fluid.layers.embedding( input=sequence, size=[dict_size, 512]) hidden = fluid.layers.fc(input=embedding, size=512) label = fluid.layers.data( name='label', shape=[1], lod_level=1, dtype='int32') crf = fluid.layers.linear_chain_crf( input=hidden, label=label, param_attr=fluid.ParamAttr(name="crfw")) crf_decode = fluid.layers.crf_decoding( input=hidden, param_attr=fluid.ParamAttr(name="crfw")) fluid.layers.chunk_eval( input=crf_decode, label=label, chunk_scheme="IOB", num_chunk_types=(label_dict_len - 1) / 2) """ helper = LayerHelper("chunk_eval", **locals()) # prepare output precision = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="float32") recall = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="float32") f1_score = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="float32") num_infer_chunks = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") num_label_chunks = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") num_correct_chunks = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype="int64") helper.append_op( type="chunk_eval", inputs={"Inference": [input], "Label": [label]}, outputs={ "Precision": [precision], "Recall": [recall], "F1-Score": [f1_score], "NumInferChunks": [num_infer_chunks], "NumLabelChunks": [num_label_chunks], "NumCorrectChunks": [num_correct_chunks] }, attrs={ "num_chunk_types": num_chunk_types, "chunk_scheme": chunk_scheme, "excluded_chunk_types": excluded_chunk_types or [] }) return (precision, recall, f1_score, num_infer_chunks, num_label_chunks, num_correct_chunks)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sequence_conv(input, num_filters, filter_size=3, filter_stride=1, padding=None, bias_attr=None, param_attr=None, act=None, name=None): """ This function creates the op for sequence_conv, using the inputs and other convolutional configurations for the filters and stride as given in the input parameters to the function. Args: input (Variable): ${x_comment} num_filters (int): number of filters. filter_size (int): the filter size (H and W). filter_stride (int): stride of the filter. padding (bool): if True, add paddings. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of sequence_conv. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, sequence_conv will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of sequence_conv. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, sequence_conv will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. act (str): Activation type, if it is set to None, activation is not appended. Default: None. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. Returns: Variable: output of sequence_conv Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10,10], append_batch_size=False, dtype='float32') x_conved = fluid.layers.sequence_conv(x,2) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_conv', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() filter_shape = [filter_size * input.shape[1], num_filters] filter_param = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=filter_shape, dtype=dtype) pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='sequence_conv', inputs={ 'X': [input], 'Filter': [filter_param], }, outputs={"Out": pre_bias}, attrs={ 'contextStride': filter_stride, 'contextStart': -int(filter_size // 2), 'contextLength': filter_size }) pre_act = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias) return helper.append_activation(pre_act)
[docs]def sequence_softmax(input, use_cudnn=False, name=None): """ This function computes the softmax activation among all time-steps for each sequence. The dimension of each time-step should be 1. Thus, the shape of input Tensor can be either :math:`[N, 1]` or :math:`[N]`, where :math:`N` is the sum of the length of all sequences. For i-th sequence in a mini-batch: .. math:: Out(X[lod[i]:lod[i+1]], :) = \\frac{\exp(X[lod[i]:lod[i+1], :])}{\sum(\exp(X[lod[i]:lod[i+1], :]))} For example, for a mini-batch of 3 sequences with variable-length, each containing 2, 3, 2 time-steps, the lod of which is [0, 2, 5, 7], then softmax will be computed among :math:`X[0:2, :]`, :math:`X[2:5, :]`, :math:`X[5:7, :]`, and :math:`N` turns out to be 7. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. use_cudnn (bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn \ library is installed. Default: False. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. Returns: Variable: output of sequence_softmax Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[7, 1], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) x_sequence_softmax = fluid.layers.sequence_softmax(input=x) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_softmax', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() softmax_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="sequence_softmax", inputs={"X": input}, outputs={"Out": softmax_out}, attrs={"use_cudnn": use_cudnn}) return softmax_out
[docs]def softmax(input, use_cudnn=False, name=None, axis=-1): """ The input of the softmax operator is a tensor of any rank. The output tensor has the same shape as the input. The dimension :attr:`axis` of the input tensor will be permuted to the last. Then the input tensor will be logically flattened to a 2-D matrix. The matrix's second dimension(row length) is the same as the dimension :attr:`axis` of the input tensor, and the first dimension(column length) is the product of all other dimensions of the input tensor. For each row of the matrix, the softmax operator squashes the K-dimensional(K is the width of the matrix, which is also the size of the input tensor's dimension :attr:`axis`) vector of arbitrary real values to a K-dimensional vector of real values in the range [0, 1] that add up to 1. It computes the exponential of the given dimension and the sum of exponential values of all the other dimensions in the K-dimensional vector input. Then the ratio of the exponential of the given dimension and the sum of exponential values of all the other dimensions is the output of the softmax operator. For each row :math:`i` and each column :math:`j` in the matrix, we have: .. math:: Out[i, j] = \\frac{\exp(X[i, j])}{\sum_j(exp(X[i, j])} Args: input (Variable): The input variable. use_cudnn (bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn \ library is installed. To improve numerical stablity, set use_cudnn to \ False by default. Default: False name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. axis (int): The index of dimension to perform softmax calculations, it should be in range :math:`[-1, rank - 1]`, while :math:`rank` is the rank of input variable. Default: -1. Returns: Variable: output of softmax Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[2], dtype='float32') fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=x, size=10) # perform softmax in the second dimension softmax = fluid.layers.softmax(input=fc, axis=1) # perform softmax in the last dimension softmax = fluid.layers.softmax(input=fc, axis=-1) """ helper = LayerHelper('softmax', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() softmax_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="softmax", inputs={"X": input}, outputs={"Out": softmax_out}, attrs={"axis": axis, "use_cudnn": use_cudnn}) return softmax_out
[docs]def conv2d(input, num_filters, filter_size, stride=1, padding=0, dilation=1, groups=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_cudnn=True, act=None, name=None): """ The convolution2D layer calculates the output based on the input, filter and strides, paddings, dilations, groups parameters. Input and Output are in NCHW format, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Filter is in MCHW format, where M is the number of output image channels, C is the number of input image channels, H is the height of the filter, and W is the width of the filter. If the groups is greater than 1, C will equal the number of input image channels divided by the groups. Please refer to UFLDL's `convolution <http://ufldl.stanford.edu/tutorial/supervised/FeatureExtractionUsingConvolution/>`_ for more detials. If bias attribution and activation type are provided, bias is added to the output of the convolution, and the corresponding activation function is applied to the final result. For each input :math:`X`, the equation is: .. math:: Out = \sigma (W \\ast X + b) Where: * :math:`X`: Input value, a tensor with NCHW format. * :math:`W`: Filter value, a tensor with MCHW format. * :math:`\\ast`: Convolution operation. * :math:`b`: Bias value, a 2-D tensor with shape [M, 1]. * :math:`\\sigma`: Activation function. * :math:`Out`: Output value, the shape of :math:`Out` and :math:`X` may be different. Example: - Input: Input shape: :math:`(N, C_{in}, H_{in}, W_{in})` Filter shape: :math:`(C_{out}, C_{in}, H_f, W_f)` - Output: Output shape: :math:`(N, C_{out}, H_{out}, W_{out})` Where .. math:: H_{out}&= \\frac{(H_{in} + 2 * paddings[0] - (dilations[0] * (H_f - 1) + 1))}{strides[0]} + 1 \\\\ W_{out}&= \\frac{(W_{in} + 2 * paddings[1] - (dilations[1] * (W_f - 1) + 1))}{strides[1]} + 1 Args: input (Variable): The input image with [N, C, H, W] format. num_filters(int): The number of filter. It is as same as the output image channel. filter_size (int|tuple|None): The filter size. If filter_size is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (filter_size_H, filter_size_W). Otherwise, the filter will be a square. stride (int|tuple): The stride size. If stride is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (stride_H, stride_W). Otherwise, the stride_H = stride_W = stride. Default: stride = 1. padding (int|tuple): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (padding_H, padding_W). Otherwise, the padding_H = padding_W = padding. Default: padding = 0. dilation (int|tuple): The dilation size. If dilation is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (dilation_H, dilation_W). Otherwise, the dilation_H = dilation_W = dilation. Default: dilation = 1. groups (int): The groups number of the Conv2d Layer. According to grouped convolution in Alex Krizhevsky's Deep CNN paper: when group=2, the first half of the filters is only connected to the first half of the input channels, while the second half of the filters is only connected to the second half of the input channels. Default: groups=1. param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of conv2d. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv2d will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with :math:`Normal(0.0, std)`, and the :math:`std` is :math:`(\\frac{2.0 }{filter\_elem\_num})^{0.5}`. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of conv2d. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv2d will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_cudnn (bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn library is installed. Default: True act (str): Activation type, if it is set to None, activation is not appended. Default: None name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the convolution and \ non-linearity activation result. Raises: ValueError: If the shapes of input, filter_size, stride, padding and groups mismatch. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') conv2d = fluid.layers.conv2d(input=data, num_filters=2, filter_size=3, act="relu") """ num_channels = input.shape[1] assert param_attr is not False, "param_attr should not be False here." l_type = 'conv2d' if (num_channels == groups and num_filters % num_channels == 0 and not use_cudnn): l_type = 'depthwise_conv2d' helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() if groups is None: num_filter_channels = num_channels else: if num_channels % groups != 0: raise ValueError("num_channels must be divisible by groups.") num_filter_channels = num_channels // groups filter_size = utils.convert_to_list(filter_size, 2, 'filter_size') stride = utils.convert_to_list(stride, 2, 'stride') padding = utils.convert_to_list(padding, 2, 'padding') dilation = utils.convert_to_list(dilation, 2, 'dilation') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") input_shape = input.shape filter_shape = [num_filters, int(num_filter_channels)] + filter_size def _get_default_param_initializer(): filter_elem_num = filter_size[0] * filter_size[1] * num_channels std = (2.0 / filter_elem_num)**0.5 return Normal(0.0, std, 0) filter_param = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=filter_shape, dtype=dtype, default_initializer=_get_default_param_initializer()) pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) if use_cudnn: helper.create_variable( name="kCUDNNFwdAlgoCache", persistable=True, type=core.VarDesc.VarType.RAW) helper.create_variable( name="kCUDNNBwdDataAlgoCache", persistable=True, type=core.VarDesc.VarType.RAW) helper.create_variable( name="kCUDNNBwdFilterAlgoCache", persistable=True, type=core.VarDesc.VarType.RAW) helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={ 'Input': input, 'Filter': filter_param, }, outputs={"Output": pre_bias}, attrs={ 'strides': stride, 'paddings': padding, 'dilations': dilation, 'groups': groups, 'use_cudnn': use_cudnn, 'use_mkldnn': False, 'fuse_relu_before_depthwise_conv': False }) pre_act = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias, dim_start=1, dim_end=2) return helper.append_activation(pre_act)
[docs]def conv3d(input, num_filters, filter_size, stride=1, padding=0, dilation=1, groups=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_cudnn=True, act=None, name=None): """ **Convlution3D Layer** The convolution3D layer calculates the output based on the input, filter and strides, paddings, dilations, groups parameters. Input(Input) and Output(Output) are in NCDHW format. Where N is batch size C is the number of channels, D is the depth of the feature, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Convlution3D is similar with Convlution2D but adds one dimension(depth). If bias attribution and activation type are provided, bias is added to the output of the convolution, and the corresponding activation function is applied to the final result. For each input :math:`X`, the equation is: .. math:: Out = \sigma (W \\ast X + b) In the above equation: * :math:`X`: Input value, a tensor with NCDHW format. * :math:`W`: Filter value, a tensor with MCDHW format. * :math:`\\ast`: Convolution operation. * :math:`b`: Bias value, a 2-D tensor with shape [M, 1]. * :math:`\\sigma`: Activation function. * :math:`Out`: Output value, the shape of :math:`Out` and :math:`X` may be different. Example: - Input: Input shape: :math:`(N, C_{in}, D_{in}, H_{in}, W_{in})` Filter shape: :math:`(C_{out}, C_{in}, D_f, H_f, W_f)` - Output: Output shape: :math:`(N, C_{out}, D_{out}, H_{out}, W_{out})` Where .. math:: D_{out}&= \\frac{(D_{in} + 2 * paddings[0] - (dilations[0] * (D_f - 1) + 1))}{strides[0]} + 1 \\\\ H_{out}&= \\frac{(H_{in} + 2 * paddings[1] - (dilations[1] * (H_f - 1) + 1))}{strides[1]} + 1 \\\\ W_{out}&= \\frac{(W_{in} + 2 * paddings[2] - (dilations[2] * (W_f - 1) + 1))}{strides[2]} + 1 Args: input (Variable): The input image with [N, C, D, H, W] format. num_filters(int): The number of filter. It is as same as the output image channel. filter_size (int|tuple|None): The filter size. If filter_size is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (filter_size_D, filter_size_H, filter_size_W). Otherwise, the filter will be a square. stride (int|tuple): The stride size. If stride is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (stride_D, stride_H, stride_W). Otherwise, the stride_D = stride_H = stride_W = stride. Default: stride = 1. padding (int|tuple): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (padding_D, padding_H, padding_W). Otherwise, the padding_D = padding_H = padding_W = padding. Default: padding = 0. dilation (int|tuple): The dilation size. If dilation is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (dilation_D, dilation_H, dilation_W). Otherwise, the dilation_D = dilation_H = dilation_W = dilation. Default: dilation = 1. groups (int): The groups number of the Conv3d Layer. According to grouped convolution in Alex Krizhevsky's Deep CNN paper: when group=2, the first half of the filters is only connected to the first half of the input channels, while the second half of the filters is only connected to the second half of the input channels. Default: groups=1 param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of conv3d. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv3d will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If it is set to None, the parameter is initialized with :math:`Normal(0.0, std)`, and the :math:`std` is :math:`(\\frac{2.0 }{filter\_elem\_num})^{0.5}`. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of conv3d. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv3d will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_cudnn (bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn library is installed. Default: True act (str): Activation type, if it is set to None, activation is not appended. Default: None. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the convolution and \ non-linearity activation result. Raises: ValueError: If the shapes of input, filter_size, stride, padding and groups mismatch. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 12, 32, 32], dtype='float32') conv3d = fluid.layers.conv3d(input=data, num_filters=2, filter_size=3, act="relu") """ l_type = 'conv3d' assert param_attr is not False, "param_attr should not be False here." helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() num_channels = input.shape[1] if groups is None: num_filter_channels = num_channels else: if num_channels % groups != 0: raise ValueError("num_channels must be divisible by groups.") num_filter_channels = num_channels // groups filter_size = utils.convert_to_list(filter_size, 3, 'filter_size') stride = utils.convert_to_list(stride, 3, 'stride') padding = utils.convert_to_list(padding, 3, 'padding') dilation = utils.convert_to_list(dilation, 3, 'dilation') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") input_shape = input.shape filter_shape = [num_filters, num_filter_channels] + filter_size def _get_default_param_initializer(): filter_elem_num = filter_size[0] * filter_size[1] * filter_size[ 2] * num_channels std = (2.0 / filter_elem_num)**0.5 return Normal(0.0, std, 0) filter_param = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=filter_shape, dtype=dtype, default_initializer=_get_default_param_initializer()) pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={ 'Input': input, 'Filter': filter_param, }, outputs={"Output": pre_bias}, attrs={ 'strides': stride, 'paddings': padding, 'dilations': dilation, 'groups': groups, 'use_cudnn': use_cudnn, 'use_mkldnn': False }) pre_act = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias, dim_start=1, dim_end=2) return helper.append_activation(pre_act)
[docs]def sequence_pool(input, pool_type, is_test=False, pad_value=0.0): """ This function add the operator for sequence pooling. It pools features of all time-steps of each instance, and is applied on top of the input using pool_type mentioned in the parameters. It supports four pool_type: - average: :math:`Out[i] = \\frac{\sum_i X_i}{N}` - sum: :math:`Out[i] = \sum_jX_{ij}` - sqrt: :math:`Out[i] = \\frac{\sum_jX_{ij}}{\sqrt{len(X_i)}}` - max: :math:`Out[i] = max(X_i)` .. code-block:: text x is a 1-level LoDTensor and **pad_value** = 0.0: x.lod = [[2, 3, 2, 0]] x.data = [1, 3, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1] x.dims = [7, 1] then output is a Tensor: out.dim = [4, 1] with condition len(x.lod[-1]) == out.dims[0] for different pool_type: average: out.data = [2, 4, 3, 0.0], where 2=(1+3)/2, 4=(2+4+6)/3, 3=(5+1)/2 sum : out.data = [4, 12, 6, 0.0], where 4=1+3, 12=2+4+6, 6=5+1 sqrt : out.data = [2.82, 6.93, 4.24, 0.0], where 2.82=(1+3)/sqrt(2), 6.93=(2+4+6)/sqrt(3), 4.24=(5+1)/sqrt(2) max : out.data = [3, 6, 5, 0.0], where 3=max(1,3), 6=max(2,4,6), 5=max(5,1) last : out.data = [3, 6, 1, 0.0], where 3=last(1,3), 6=last(2,4,6), 1=last(5,1) first : out.data = [1, 2, 5, 0.0], where 1=first(1,3), 2=first(2,4,6), 5=first(5,1) and all above 0.0 = **pad_value**. Args: input (variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. pool_type (string): The pooling type of sequence_pool. It supports average, sum, sqrt and max. is_test (bool): Used to distinguish training from scoring mode. Default False. pad_value (float): Used to pad the pooling result for empty input sequence. Returns: The sequence pooling variable which is a Tensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[7, 1], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) avg_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='average') sum_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='sum') sqrt_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='sqrt') max_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='max') last_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='last') first_x = fluid.layers.sequence_pool(input=x, pool_type='first') """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_pool', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) max_index = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="sequence_pool", inputs={"X": input}, outputs={"Out": pool_out, "MaxIndex": max_index}, attrs={ "pooltype": pool_type.upper(), "is_test": is_test, "pad_value": pad_value }) # when pool_type is max, variable max_index is initialized, # so we stop the gradient explicitly here if pool_type == 'max': max_index.stop_gradient = True return pool_out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sequence_concat(input, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: input(list): List of Variables to be concatenated. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: Output variable of the concatenation. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[10], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.sequence_concat(input=[x, y]) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_concat', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) helper.append_op( type='sequence_concat', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': [out]}) return out
[docs]def sequence_first_step(input): """ This function gets the first step of sequence. .. code-block:: text x is a 1-level LoDTensor: x.lod = [[2, 3, 2]] x.data = [1, 3, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1] x.dims = [7, 1] then output is a Tensor: out.dim = [3, 1] with condition len(x.lod[-1]) == out.dims[0] out.data = [1, 2, 5], where 1=first(1,3), 2=first(2,4,6), 5=first(5,1) Args: input(variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. Returns: The sequence's first step variable which is a Tensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[7, 1], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) x_first_step = fluid.layers.sequence_first_step(input=x) """ return sequence_pool(input=input, pool_type="first")
[docs]def sequence_last_step(input): """ This function gets the last step of sequence. .. code-block:: text x is a 1-level LoDTensor: x.lod = [[2, 3, 2]] x.data = [1, 3, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1] x.dims = [7, 1] then output is a Tensor: out.dim = [3, 1] with condition len(x.lod[-1]) == out.dims[0] out.data = [3, 6, 1], where 3=last(1,3), 6=last(2,4,6), 1=last(5,1) Args: input(variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. Returns: The sequence's last step variable which is a Tensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[7, 1], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) x_last_step = fluid.layers.sequence_last_step(input=x) """ return sequence_pool(input=input, pool_type="last")
[docs]def sequence_slice(input, offset, length, name=None): """ **Sequence Slice Layer** The layer crops a subsequence from given sequence with given start offset and subsequence length. It only supports sequence data (LoDTensor with lod_level equal to 1). .. code-block:: text - Case: Given the input Variable **input**: input.data = [[a1, a2], [b1, b2], [c1, c2], [d1, d2], [e1, e2]], input.lod = [[3, 2]], input.dims = (5, 2), with offset.data = [[0], [1]] and length.data = [[2], [1]], the output Variable will be out.data = [[a1, a2], [b1, b2], [e1, e2]], out.lod = [[2, 1]], out.dims = (3, 2). Note: The first dimension size of **input**, **offset** and **length** should be equal. The **offset** should start from 0. Args: input(Variable): The input Variable which consists of the complete sequences. offset(Variable): The offset to slice each sequence. length(Variable): The length of each subsequence. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output subsequences. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import numpy as np seqs = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10, 5], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) offset = fluid.layers.assign(input=np.array([[0, 1]]).astype("int32")) length = fluid.layers.assign(input=np.array([[2, 1]]).astype("int32")) subseqs = fluid.layers.sequence_slice(input=seqs, offset=offset, length=length) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper("sequence_slice", **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) offset.stop_gradient = True length.stop_gradient = True helper.append_op( type="sequence_slice", inputs={"X": input, "Offset": offset, "Length": length}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def pool2d(input, pool_size=-1, pool_type="max", pool_stride=1, pool_padding=0, global_pooling=False, use_cudnn=True, ceil_mode=False, name=None, exclusive=True): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of pooling operator. The format of input tensor is NCHW, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. pool_size (int|list|tuple): The pool kernel size. If pool kernel size is a tuple or list, it must contain two integers, (pool_size_Height, pool_size_Width). Otherwise, the pool kernel size will be a square of an int. pool_type: ${pooling_type_comment} pool_stride (int|list|tuple): The pool stride size. If pool stride size is a tuple or list, it must contain two integers, (pool_stride_Height, pool_stride_Width). Otherwise, the pool stride size will be a square of an int. pool_padding (int|list|tuple): The pool padding size. If pool padding size is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (pool_padding_on_Height, pool_padding_on_Width). Otherwise, the pool padding size will be a square of an int. global_pooling (bool): ${global_pooling_comment} use_cudnn (bool): ${use_cudnn_comment} ceil_mode (bool): ${ceil_mode_comment} name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. exclusive (bool): Whether to exclude padding points in average pooling mode, default is true Returns: Variable: The pooling result. Raises: ValueError: If 'pool_type' is not "max" nor "avg" ValueError: If 'global_pooling' is False and 'pool_size' is -1 ValueError: If 'use_cudnn' is not a bool value. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') pool2d = fluid.layers.pool2d( input=data, pool_size=2, pool_type='max', pool_stride=1, global_pooling=False) """ if pool_type not in ["max", "avg"]: raise ValueError( "Unknown pool_type: '%s'. It can only be 'max' or 'avg'.", str(pool_type)) if global_pooling is False and pool_size == -1: raise ValueError( "When the global_pooling is False, pool_size must be passed " "and be a valid value. Received pool_size: " + str(pool_size)) pool_size = utils.convert_to_list(pool_size, 2, 'pool_size') pool_padding = utils.convert_to_list(pool_padding, 2, 'pool_padding') pool_stride = utils.convert_to_list(pool_stride, 2, 'pool_stride') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") l_type = 'pool2d' helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={"X": input}, outputs={"Out": pool_out}, attrs={ "pooling_type": pool_type, "ksize": pool_size, "global_pooling": global_pooling, "strides": pool_stride, "paddings": pool_padding, "use_cudnn": use_cudnn, "ceil_mode": ceil_mode, "use_mkldnn": False, "exclusive": exclusive, }) return pool_out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def pool3d(input, pool_size=-1, pool_type="max", pool_stride=1, pool_padding=0, global_pooling=False, use_cudnn=True, ceil_mode=False, name=None, exclusive=True): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of pooling operator. The format of input tensor is NCDHW, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, D is the depth of the feature, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. pool_size (int|list|tuple): The pool kernel size. If pool kernel size is a tuple or list, it must contain three integers, (pool_size_Depth, pool_size_Height, pool_size_Width). Otherwise, the pool kernel size will be the cube of an int. pool_type (string): ${pooling_type_comment} pool_stride (int): stride of the pooling layer. pool_padding (int): padding size. global_pooling (bool): ${global_pooling_comment} use_cudnn (bool): ${use_cudnn_comment} ceil_mode (bool): ${ceil_mode_comment} name (str): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. exclusive (bool): Whether to exclude padding points in average pooling mode, default is true Returns: Variable: output of pool3d layer. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32, 32], dtype='float32') pool3d = fluid.layers.pool3d( input=data, pool_size=2, pool_type='max', pool_stride=1, global_pooling=False) """ if pool_type not in ["max", "avg"]: raise ValueError( "Unknown pool_type: '%s'. It can only be 'max' or 'avg'.", str(pool_type)) if global_pooling is False and pool_size == -1: raise ValueError( "When the global_pooling is False, pool_size must be passed " "and be a valid value. Received pool_size: " + str(pool_size)) pool_size = utils.convert_to_list(pool_size, 3, 'pool_size') pool_padding = utils.convert_to_list(pool_padding, 3, 'pool_padding') pool_stride = utils.convert_to_list(pool_stride, 3, 'pool_stride') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") l_type = "pool3d" helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={"X": input}, outputs={"Out": pool_out}, attrs={ "pooling_type": pool_type, "ksize": pool_size, "global_pooling": global_pooling, "strides": pool_stride, "paddings": pool_padding, "use_cudnn": use_cudnn, "ceil_mode": ceil_mode, "use_mkldnn": False, "exclusive": exclusive, }) return pool_out
@templatedoc(op_type="pool2d")
[docs]def adaptive_pool2d(input, pool_size, pool_type="max", require_index=False, name=None): """ **Adaptive Pool2d Operator** The adaptive_pool2d operation calculates the output based on the input, pool_size, pool_type parameters. Input(X) and output(Out) are in NCHW format, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Parameters(pool_size) should contain two elements which represent height and width, respectively. Also the H and W dimensions of output(Out) is same as Parameter(pool_size). For average adaptive pool2d: .. math:: hstart &= floor(i * H_{in} / H_{out}) hend &= ceil((i + 1) * H_{in} / H_{out}) wstart &= floor(j * W_{in} / W_{out}) wend &= ceil((j + 1) * W_{in} / W_{out}) Output(i ,j) &= \\frac{sum(Input[hstart:hend, wstart:wend])}{(hend - hstart) * (wend - wstart)} Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of pooling operator. The format of input tensor is NCHW, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. pool_size (int|list|tuple): The pool kernel size. If pool kernel size is a tuple or list, it must contain two integers, (pool_size_Height, pool_size_Width). pool_type: ${pooling_type_comment} require_index (bool): If true, the index of max pooling point will be returned along with outputs. It cannot be set in average pooling type. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The pooling result. Raises: ValueError: 'pool_type' is not 'max' nor 'avg'. ValueError: invalid setting 'require_index' true when 'pool_type' is 'avg'. ValueError: 'pool_size' should be a list or tuple with length as 2. Examples: .. code-block:: python # suppose input data in shape of [N, C, H, W], `pool_size` is [m, n], # output shape is [N, C, m, n], adaptive pool divide H and W dimentions # of input data into m * n grids averagely and performs poolings in each # grid to get output. # adaptive average pool performs calculations as follow: # # for i in range(m): # for j in range(n): # hstart = floor(i * H / m) # hend = ceil((i + 1) * H / m) # wstart = floor(i * W / n) # wend = ceil((i + 1) * W / n) # output[:, :, i, j] = avg(input[:, :, hstart: hend, wstart: wend]) # import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') pool_out = fluid.layers.adaptive_pool2d( input=data, pool_size=[3, 3], pool_type='avg') """ if pool_type not in ["max", "avg"]: raise ValueError( "Unknown pool_type: '%s'. It can only be 'max' or 'avg'.", str(pool_type)) if pool_type == "avg" and require_index: raise ValueError( "invalid setting 'require_index' true when 'pool_type' is 'avg'.") pool_size = utils.convert_to_list(pool_size, 2, 'pool_size') if pool_type == "max": l_type = 'max_pool2d_with_index' else: l_type = "pool2d" helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) outputs = {"Out": pool_out} if pool_type == "max": mask = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) outputs["Mask"] = mask helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={"X": input}, outputs=outputs, attrs={ "pooling_type": pool_type, "ksize": pool_size, "adaptive": True, }) return (pool_out, mask) if require_index else pool_out
@templatedoc(op_type="pool3d")
[docs]def adaptive_pool3d(input, pool_size, pool_type="max", require_index=False, name=None): """ **Adaptive Pool3d Operator** The adaptive_pool3d operation calculates the output based on the input, pool_size, pool_type parameters. Input(X) and output(Out) are in NCDHW format, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, D is the depth of the feature, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Parameters(pool_size) should contain three elements which represent height and width, respectively. Also the D, H and W dimensions of output(Out) is same as Parameter(pool_size). For average adaptive pool3d: .. math:: dstart &= floor(i * D_{in} / D_{out}) dend &= ceil((i + 1) * D_{in} / D_{out}) hstart &= floor(j * H_{in} / H_{out}) hend &= ceil((j + 1) * H_{in} / H_{out}) wstart &= floor(k * W_{in} / W_{out}) wend &= ceil((k + 1) * W_{in} / W_{out}) Output(i ,j, k) &= \\frac{sum(Input[dstart:dend, hstart:hend, wstart:wend])}{(dend - dstart) * (hend - hstart) * (wend - wstart)} Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of pooling operator. The format of input tensor is NCDHW, where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, D is the depth of the feature, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. pool_size (int|list|tuple): The pool kernel size. If pool kernel size is a tuple or list, it must contain three integers, (Depth, Height, Width). pool_type: ${pooling_type_comment} require_index (bool): If true, the index of max pooling point will be returned along with outputs. It cannot be set in average pooling type. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The pooling result. Raises: ValueError: 'pool_type' is not 'max' nor 'avg'. ValueError: invalid setting 'require_index' true when 'pool_type' is 'avg'. ValueError: 'pool_size' should be a list or tuple with length as 2. Examples: .. code-block:: python # suppose input data in shape of [N, C, D, H, W], `pool_size` is [l, m, n], # output shape is [N, C, l, m, n], adaptive pool divide D, H and W dimentions # of input data into l * m * n grids averagely and performs poolings in each # grid to get output. # adaptive average pool performs calculations as follow: # # for i in range(l): # for j in range(m): # for k in range(n): # dstart = floor(i * D / l) # dend = ceil((i + 1) * D / l) # hstart = floor(j * H / m) # hend = ceil((j + 1) * H / m) # wstart = floor(k * W / n) # wend = ceil((k + 1) * W / n) # output[:, :, i, j, k] = # avg(input[:, :, dstart:dend, hstart: hend, wstart: wend]) # import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32, 32], dtype='float32') pool_out = fluid.layers.adaptive_pool3d( input=data, pool_size=[3, 3, 3], pool_type='avg') """ if pool_type not in ["max", "avg"]: raise ValueError( "Unknown pool_type: '%s'. It can only be 'max' or 'avg'.", str(pool_type)) if pool_type == "avg" and require_index: raise ValueError( "invalid setting 'require_index' true when 'pool_type' is 'avg'.") pool_size = utils.convert_to_list(pool_size, 3, 'pool_size') if pool_type == "max": l_type = 'max_pool3d_with_index' else: l_type = "pool3d" helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) outputs = {"Out": pool_out} if pool_type == "max": mask = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) outputs["Mask"] = mask helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={"X": input}, outputs=outputs, attrs={ "pooling_type": pool_type, "ksize": pool_size, "adaptive": True, }) return (pool_out, mask) if require_index else pool_out
[docs]def batch_norm(input, act=None, is_test=False, momentum=0.9, epsilon=1e-05, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, data_layout='NCHW', in_place=False, name=None, moving_mean_name=None, moving_variance_name=None, do_model_average_for_mean_and_var=False, fuse_with_relu=False, use_global_stats=False): """ **Batch Normalization Layer** Can be used as a normalizer function for conv2d and fully_connected operations. The required data format for this layer is one of the following: 1. NHWC `[batch, in_height, in_width, in_channels]` 2. NCHW `[batch, in_channels, in_height, in_width]` Refer to `Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.03167.pdf>`_ for more details. :math:`input` is the input features over a mini-batch. .. math:: \\mu_{\\beta} &\\gets \\frac{1}{m} \\sum_{i=1}^{m} x_i \\qquad &//\\ \ mini-batch\ mean \\\\ \\sigma_{\\beta}^{2} &\\gets \\frac{1}{m} \\sum_{i=1}^{m}(x_i - \\ \\mu_{\\beta})^2 \\qquad &//\ mini-batch\ variance \\\\ \\hat{x_i} &\\gets \\frac{x_i - \\mu_\\beta} {\\sqrt{\\ \\sigma_{\\beta}^{2} + \\epsilon}} \\qquad &//\ normalize \\\\ y_i &\\gets \\gamma \\hat{x_i} + \\beta \\qquad &//\ scale\ and\ shift When use_global_stats = True, the :math:`\\mu_{\\beta}` and :math:`\\sigma_{\\beta}^{2}` are not the statistics of one mini-batch. They are global (or running) statistics. (It usually got from the pre-trained model.) The training and testing (or inference) have the same behavior: .. math:: \\hat{x_i} &\\gets \\frac{x_i - \\mu_\\beta} {\\sqrt{\\ \\sigma_{\\beta}^{2} + \\epsilon}} \\\\ y_i &\\gets \\gamma \\hat{x_i} + \\beta Args: input(variable): The rank of input variable can be 2, 3, 4, 5. act(string, Default None): Activation type, linear|relu|prelu|... is_test (bool, Default False): A flag indicating whether it is in test phrase or not. momentum(float, Default 0.9): The value used for the moving_mean and moving_var computation. The updated formula is: :math:`moving\_mean = moving\_mean * momentum + new\_mean * (1. - momentum)` :math:`moving\_var = moving\_var * momentum + new\_var * (1. - momentum)` Default is 0.9. epsilon(float, Default 1e-05): A value added to the denominator for numerical stability. Default is 1e-5. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for Parameter `scale` of batch_norm. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, batch_norm will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of batch_norm. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, batch_norm will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. data_layout(string, default NCHW): NCHW|NHWC in_place(bool, Default False): Make the input and output of batch norm reuse memory. name(string, Default None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. moving_mean_name(string, Default None): The name of moving_mean which store the global Mean. If it is set to None, batch_norm will save global mean with a random name, otherwise, batch_norm will save global mean with the string. moving_variance_name(string, Default None): The name of the moving_variance which store the global Variance. If it is set to None, batch_norm will save global variance with a random name, otherwise, batch_norm will save global variance with the string. do_model_average_for_mean_and_var(bool, Default False): Do model average for mean and variance or not. fuse_with_relu (bool): if True, this OP performs relu after batch norm. use_global_stats(bool, Default False): Whether to use global mean and variance. In inference or test mode, set use_global_stats to true or is_test to true, and the behavior is equivalent. In train mode, when setting use_global_stats True, the global mean and variance are also used during train period. Returns: Variable: A tensor variable which is the result after applying batch normalization on the input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[3, 7, 3, 7], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) hidden1 = fluid.layers.fc(input=x, size=200, param_attr='fc1.w') hidden2 = fluid.layers.batch_norm(input=hidden1) """ assert bias_attr is not False, "bias_attr should not be False in batch_norm." helper = LayerHelper('batch_norm', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() # use fp32 for bn parameter if dtype == core.VarDesc.VarType.FP16: dtype = core.VarDesc.VarType.FP32 input_shape = input.shape if data_layout == 'NCHW': channel_num = input_shape[1] else: if data_layout == 'NHWC': channel_num = input_shape[-1] else: raise ValueError("unsupported data layout:" + data_layout) param_shape = [channel_num] # create parameter scale = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, default_initializer=Constant(1.0)) bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) mean = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr( name=moving_mean_name, initializer=Constant(0.0), trainable=False, do_model_average=do_model_average_for_mean_and_var), shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype) mean.stop_gradient = True variance = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr( name=moving_variance_name, initializer=Constant(1.0), trainable=False, do_model_average=do_model_average_for_mean_and_var), shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype) variance.stop_gradient = True # create output # mean and mean_out share the same memory mean_out = mean # variance and variance out share the same memory variance_out = variance saved_mean = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) saved_variance = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) batch_norm_out = input if in_place else helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype) helper.append_op( type="batch_norm", inputs={ "X": input, "Scale": scale, "Bias": bias, "Mean": mean, "Variance": variance }, outputs={ "Y": batch_norm_out, "MeanOut": mean_out, "VarianceOut": variance_out, "SavedMean": saved_mean, "SavedVariance": saved_variance }, attrs={ "momentum": momentum, "epsilon": epsilon, "is_test": is_test, "data_layout": data_layout, "use_mkldnn": False, "fuse_with_relu": fuse_with_relu, "use_global_stats": use_global_stats }) return helper.append_activation(batch_norm_out)
[docs]def data_norm(input, act=None, epsilon=1e-05, param_attr=None, data_layout='NCHW', in_place=False, name=None, moving_mean_name=None, moving_variance_name=None, do_model_average_for_mean_and_var=False): """ **Data Normalization Layer** Can be used as a normalizer function for conv2d and fully_connected operations. The required data format for this layer is one of the following: 1. NHWC `[batch, in_height, in_width, in_channels]` 2. NCHW `[batch, in_channels, in_height, in_width]` :math:`input` is the input features over a mini-batch. .. math:: \\mu_{\\beta} &\\gets \\frac{1}{m} \\sum_{i=1}^{m} x_i \\qquad &//\\ \ mini-batch\ mean \\\\ \\sigma_{\\beta}^{2} &\\gets \\frac{1}{m} \\sum_{i=1}^{m}(x_i - \\ \\mu_{\\beta})^2 \\qquad &//\ mini-batch\ variance \\\\ \\hat{x_i} &\\gets \\frac{x_i - \\mu_\\beta} {\\sqrt{\\ \\sigma_{\\beta}^{2} + \\epsilon}} \\qquad &//\ normalize \\\\ y_i &\\gets \\gamma \\hat{x_i} + \\beta \\qquad &//\ scale\ and\ shift Args: input(variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. act(string, Default None): Activation type, linear|relu|prelu|... epsilon(float, Default 1e-05): param_attr(ParamAttr): The parameter attribute for Parameter `scale`. data_layout(string, default NCHW): NCHW|NHWC in_place(bool, Default False): Make the input and output of batch norm reuse memory. name(string, Default None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. moving_mean_name(string, Default None): The name of moving_mean which store the global Mean. moving_variance_name(string, Default None): The name of the moving_variance which store the global Variance. do_model_average_for_mean_and_var(bool, Default False): Do model average for mean and variance or not. Returns: Variable: A tensor variable which is the result after applying data normalization on the input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid hidden1 = fluid.layers.data(name="hidden1", shape=[200]) hidden2 = fluid.layers.data_norm(name="hidden2", input=hidden1) """ helper = LayerHelper('data_norm', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() input_shape = input.shape if data_layout == 'NCHW': channel_num = input_shape[1] else: if data_layout == 'NHWC': channel_num = input_shape[-1] else: raise ValueError("unsupported data layout:" + data_layout) param_shape = [channel_num] batch_size_default = 1e4 batch_sum_default = 0.0 batch_square_sum_default = 1e4 if param_attr and isinstance(param_attr, dict): batch_size_default = param_attr.get("batch_size", 1e4) batch_sum_default = param_attr.get("batch_sum", 0.0) batch_square_sum_default = param_attr.get("batch_square", 1e4) # create parameter batch_size = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr( name=name + '.batch_size', initializer=Constant(value=float(batch_size_default)), trainable=True), shape=param_shape, dtype=input.dtype) batch_sum = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr( name=name + '.batch_sum', initializer=Constant(value=float(batch_sum_default)), trainable=True), shape=param_shape, dtype=input.dtype) batch_square_sum = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr( name=name + '.batch_square_sum', initializer=Constant(value=float(batch_square_sum_default)), trainable=True), shape=param_shape, dtype=input.dtype) means = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) scales = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) data_norm_out = input if in_place else helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype) helper.append_op( type="data_norm", inputs={ "X": input, "BatchSize": batch_size, "BatchSum": batch_sum, "BatchSquareSum": batch_square_sum }, outputs={"Y": data_norm_out, "Means": means, "Scales": scales}, attrs={"epsilon": epsilon}) return helper.append_activation(data_norm_out)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def layer_norm(input, scale=True, shift=True, begin_norm_axis=1, epsilon=1e-05, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, act=None, name=None): """ ${comment} The formula is as follows: .. math:: \\mu & = \\frac{1}{H}\\sum_{i=1}^{H} a_i \\sigma & = \\sqrt{\\frac{1}{H}\sum_{i=1}^{H}(a_i - \\mu)^2} h & = f(\\frac{g}{\\sigma}(a - \\mu) + b) * :math:`a`: the vector representation of the summed inputs to the neurons in that layer. * :math:`H`: the number of hidden units in a layers * :math:`g`: the trainable scale parameter. * :math:`b`: the trainable bias parameter. Args: input(Variable): The input tensor variable. scale(bool): Whether to learn the adaptive gain :math:`g` after normalization. Default True. shift(bool): Whether to learn the adaptive bias :math:`b` after normalization. Default True. begin_norm_axis(int): The normalization will be performed along dimensions from :attr:`begin_norm_axis` to :attr:`rank(input)`. Default 1. epsilon(float): The small value added to the variance to prevent division by zero. Default 1e-05. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable gain :math:`g`. If :attr:`scale` is False, :attr:`param_attr` is omitted. If :attr:`scale` is True and :attr:`param_attr` is None, a default :code:`ParamAttr` would be added as scale. The :attr:`param_attr` is initialized as 1 if it is added. Default None. bias_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable bias :math:`b`. If :attr:`shift` is False, :attr:`bias_attr` is omitted. If :attr:`shift` is True and :attr:`param_attr` is None, a default :code:`ParamAttr` would be added as bias. The :attr:`bias_attr` is initialized as 0 if it is added. Default None. act(str): Activation to be applied to the output of layer normalizaiton. Default None. name(str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Default None, and a unique name would be generated automatically. Returns: ${y_comment} Examples: >>> import paddle.fluid as fluid >>> data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], >>> dtype='float32') >>> x = fluid.layers.layer_norm(input=data, begin_norm_axis=1) """ assert in_dygraph_mode( ) is not True, "please use FC instead of fc in dygraph mode!" helper = LayerHelper('layer_norm', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() # create intput and parameters inputs = {'X': input} input_shape = input.shape param_shape = [reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, input_shape[begin_norm_axis:])] if scale: scale = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, default_initializer=Constant(1.0)) inputs['Scale'] = scale if shift: assert bias_attr is not False bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) inputs['Bias'] = bias # create output mean_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) variance_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) layer_norm_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="layer_norm", inputs=inputs, outputs={ "Y": layer_norm_out, "Mean": mean_out, "Variance": variance_out, }, attrs={"epsilon": epsilon, "begin_norm_axis": begin_norm_axis}) return helper.append_activation(layer_norm_out)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def group_norm(input, groups, epsilon=1e-05, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, act=None, data_layout='NCHW', name=None): """ **Group Normalization Layer** Refer to `Group Normalization <https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.08494>`_ . Args: input(Variable): The input tensor variable. groups(int): The number of groups that divided from channels. epsilon(float): The small value added to the variance to prevent division by zero. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable scale :math:`g`. If it is set to False, no scale will be added to the output units. If it is set to None, the bias is initialized one. Default: None. bias_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable bias :math:`b`. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. act(str): Activation to be applied to the output of group normalizaiton. data_layout(string|NCHW): Only NCHW is supported. name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: A tensor variable which is the result after applying group normalization on the input. Examples: >>> import paddle.fluid as fluid >>> data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[8, 32, 32], >>> dtype='float32') >>> x = fluid.layers.group_norm(input=data, groups=4) """ helper = LayerHelper('group_norm', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() # create intput and parameters inputs = {'X': input} input_shape = input.shape if data_layout != 'NCHW': raise ValueError("unsupported data layout:" + data_layout) param_shape = [input_shape[1]] if param_attr: scale = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, default_initializer=Constant(1.0)) inputs['Scale'] = scale if bias_attr: bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=param_shape, dtype=dtype, is_bias=True) inputs['Bias'] = bias # create output mean_out = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) variance_out = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) group_norm_out = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype) helper.append_op( type="group_norm", inputs=inputs, outputs={ "Y": group_norm_out, "Mean": mean_out, "Variance": variance_out, }, attrs={"epsilon": epsilon, "groups": groups}) return helper.append_activation(group_norm_out)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def spectral_norm(weight, dim=0, power_iters=1, eps=1e-12, name=None): """ **Spectral Normalization Layer** This layer calculates the spectral normalization value of weight parameters of fc, conv1d, conv2d, conv3d layers which should be 2-D, 3-D, 4-D, 5-D Parameters. Calculations are showed as follows. Step 1: Generate vector U in shape of [H], and V in shape of [W]. While H is the :attr:`dim` th dimension of the input weights, and W is the product result of remaining dimensions. Step 2: :attr:`power_iters` shoule be a positive interger, do following calculations with U and V for :attr:`power_iters` rounds. .. math:: \mathbf{v} := \\frac{\mathbf{W}^{T} \mathbf{u}}{\|\mathbf{W}^{T} \mathbf{u}\|_2} \mathbf{u} := \\frac{\mathbf{W}^{T} \mathbf{v}}{\|\mathbf{W}^{T} \mathbf{v}\|_2} Step 3: Calculate :math:`\sigma(\mathbf{W})` and normalize weight values. .. math:: \sigma(\mathbf{W}) = \mathbf{u}^{T} \mathbf{W} \mathbf{v} \mathbf{W} = \\frac{\mathbf{W}}{\sigma(\mathbf{W})} Refer to `Spectral Normalization <https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.05957>`_ . Args: weight(${weight_type}): ${weight_comment} dim(int): ${dim_comment} power_iters(int): ${power_iters_comment} eps(float): ${eps_comment} name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: A tensor variable of weight parameters after spectral normalization. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid weight = fluid.layers.data(name='weight', shape=[2, 8, 32, 32], append_batch_size=False, dtype='float32') x = fluid.layers.spectral_norm(weight=weight, dim=1, power_iters=2) """ helper = LayerHelper('spectral_norm', **locals()) dtype = weight.dtype # create intput and parameters inputs = {'Weight': weight} input_shape = weight.shape h = input_shape[dim] w = np.prod(input_shape) // h u = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr(), shape=[h], dtype=dtype, default_initializer=Normal(0., 1.)) u.stop_gradient = True inputs['U'] = u v = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr(), shape=[w], dtype=dtype, default_initializer=Normal(0., 1.)) inputs['V'] = v v.stop_gradient = True # create output out = helper.create_variable(dtype=dtype) helper.append_op( type="spectral_norm", inputs=inputs, outputs={"Out": out, }, attrs={ "dim": dim, "power_iters": power_iters, "eps": eps, }) return out
[docs]def conv2d_transpose(input, num_filters, output_size=None, filter_size=None, padding=0, stride=1, dilation=1, groups=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_cudnn=True, act=None, name=None): """ **Convlution2D transpose layer** The convolution2D transpose layer calculates the output based on the input, filter, and dilations, strides, paddings. Input(Input) and output(Output) are in NCHW format. Where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Parameters(dilations, strides, paddings) are two elements. These two elements represent height and width, respectively. The details of convolution transpose layer, please refer to the following explanation and references `therein <http://www.matthewzeiler.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/cvpr2010.pdf>`_. If bias attribution and activation type are provided, bias is added to the output of the convolution, and the corresponding activation function is applied to the final result. For each input :math:`X`, the equation is: .. math:: Out = \sigma (W \\ast X + b) Where: * :math:`X`: Input value, a tensor with NCHW format. * :math:`W`: Filter value, a tensor with MCHW format. * :math:`\\ast`: Convolution operation. * :math:`b`: Bias value, a 2-D tensor with shape [M, 1]. * :math:`\\sigma`: Activation function. * :math:`Out`: Output value, the shape of :math:`Out` and :math:`X` may be different. Example: - Input: Input shape: :math:`(N, C_{in}, H_{in}, W_{in})` Filter shape: :math:`(C_{in}, C_{out}, H_f, W_f)` - Output: Output shape: :math:`(N, C_{out}, H_{out}, W_{out})` Where .. math:: H^\prime_{out} &= (H_{in} - 1) * strides[0] - 2 * paddings[0] + dilations[0] * (H_f - 1) + 1 \\\\ W^\prime_{out} &= (W_{in} - 1) * strides[1] - 2 * paddings[1] + dilations[1] * (W_f - 1) + 1 \\\\ H_{out} &\in [ H^\prime_{out}, H^\prime_{out} + strides[0] ) \\\\ W_{out} &\in [ W^\prime_{out}, W^\prime_{out} + strides[1] ) Args: input(Variable): The input image with [N, C, H, W] format. num_filters(int): The number of the filter. It is as same as the output image channel. output_size(int|tuple|None): The output image size. If output size is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (image_H, image_W). None if use filter_size, padding, and stride to calculate output_size. if output_size and filter_size are specified at the same time, They should follow the formula above. filter_size(int|tuple|None): The filter size. If filter_size is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (filter_size_H, filter_size_W). Otherwise, the filter will be a square. None if use output size to calculate filter_size. padding(int|tuple): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (padding_H, padding_W). Otherwise, the padding_H = padding_W = padding. Default: padding = 0. stride(int|tuple): The stride size. If stride is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (stride_H, stride_W). Otherwise, the stride_H = stride_W = stride. Default: stride = 1. dilation(int|tuple): The dilation size. If dilation is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (dilation_H, dilation_W). Otherwise, the dilation_H = dilation_W = dilation. Default: dilation = 1. groups(int): The groups number of the Conv2d transpose layer. Inspired by grouped convolution in Alex Krizhevsky's Deep CNN paper, in which when group=2, the first half of the filters is only connected to the first half of the input channels, while the second half of the filters is only connected to the second half of the input channels. Default: groups = 1. param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of conv2d_transpose. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv2d_transpose will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of conv2d_transpose. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv2d_transpose will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_cudnn(bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn library is installed. Default: True. act (str): Activation type, if it is set to None, activation is not appended. Default: None. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: True. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the convolution transpose result. Raises: ValueError: If the shapes of input, filter_size, stride, padding and groups mismatch. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') conv2d_transpose = fluid.layers.conv2d_transpose(input=data, num_filters=2, filter_size=3) """ assert param_attr is not False, "param_attr should not be False in conv2d_transpose." input_channel = input.shape[1] op_type = 'conv2d_transpose' if (input_channel == groups and num_filters == input_channel and not use_cudnn): op_type = 'depthwise_conv2d_transpose' helper = LayerHelper(op_type, **locals()) if not isinstance(input, Variable): raise TypeError("Input of conv2d_transpose must be Variable") padding = utils.convert_to_list(padding, 2, 'padding') stride = utils.convert_to_list(stride, 2, 'stride') dilation = utils.convert_to_list(dilation, 2, 'dilation') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") if filter_size is None: if output_size is None: raise ValueError("output_size must be set when filter_size is None") if isinstance(output_size, int): output_size = [output_size, output_size] h_in = input.shape[2] w_in = input.shape[3] filter_size_h = (output_size[0] - (h_in - 1) * stride[0] + 2 * padding[0] - 1) // dilation[0] + 1 filter_size_w = (output_size[1] - (w_in - 1) * stride[1] + 2 * padding[1] - 1) // dilation[1] + 1 filter_size = [filter_size_h, filter_size_w] else: filter_size = utils.convert_to_list(filter_size, 2, 'conv2d_transpose.filter_size') if output_size is None: output_size = [] elif isinstance(output_size, list) or isinstance(output_size, int): output_size = utils.convert_to_list(output_size, 2, 'output_size') else: raise ValueError("output_size should be list or int") padding = utils.convert_to_list(padding, 2, 'padding') groups = 1 if groups is None else groups filter_shape = [input_channel, num_filters // groups] + filter_size img_filter = helper.create_parameter( dtype=input.dtype, shape=filter_shape, attr=helper.param_attr) pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type=op_type, inputs={'Input': [input], 'Filter': [img_filter]}, outputs={'Output': pre_bias}, attrs={ 'output_size': output_size, 'strides': stride, 'paddings': padding, 'dilations': dilation, 'groups': groups, 'use_cudnn': use_cudnn }) pre_act = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias, dim_start=1, dim_end=2) out = helper.append_activation(pre_act) return out
[docs]def conv3d_transpose(input, num_filters, output_size=None, filter_size=None, padding=0, stride=1, dilation=1, groups=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, use_cudnn=True, act=None, name=None): """ **Convlution3D transpose layer** The convolution3D transpose layer calculates the output based on the input, filter, and dilations, strides, paddings. Input(Input) and output(Output) are in NCDHW format. Where N is batch size, C is the number of channels, D is the depth of the feature, H is the height of the feature, and W is the width of the feature. Parameters(dilations, strides, paddings) are two elements. These two elements represent height and width, respectively. The details of convolution transpose layer, please refer to the following explanation and references `therein <http://www.matthewzeiler.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/cvpr2010.pdf>`_. If bias attribution and activation type are provided, bias is added to the output of the convolution, and the corresponding activation function is applied to the final result. For each input :math:`X`, the equation is: .. math:: Out = \sigma (W \\ast X + b) In the above equation: * :math:`X`: Input value, a tensor with NCDHW format. * :math:`W`: Filter value, a tensor with MCDHW format. * :math:`\\ast`: Convolution operation. * :math:`b`: Bias value, a 2-D tensor with shape [M, 1]. * :math:`\\sigma`: Activation function. * :math:`Out`: Output value, the shape of :math:`Out` and :math:`X` may be different. Example: - Input: Input shape: :math:`(N, C_{in}, D_{in}, H_{in}, W_{in})` Filter shape: :math:`(C_{in}, C_{out}, D_f, H_f, W_f)` - Output: Output shape: :math:`(N, C_{out}, D_{out}, H_{out}, W_{out})` Where .. math:: D_{out} &= (D_{in} - 1) * strides[0] - 2 * paddings[0] + dilations[0] * (D_f - 1) + 1 \\\\ H_{out} &= (H_{in} - 1) * strides[1] - 2 * paddings[1] + dilations[1] * (H_f - 1) + 1 \\\\ W_{out} &= (W_{in} - 1) * strides[2] - 2 * paddings[2] + dilations[2] * (W_f - 1) + 1 Args: input(Variable): The input image with [N, C, D, H, W] format. num_filters(int): The number of the filter. It is as same as the output image channel. output_size(int|tuple|None): The output image size. If output size is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (image_D, image_H, image_W). This parameter only works when filter_size is None. filter_size(int|tuple|None): The filter size. If filter_size is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (filter_size_D, filter_size_H, filter_size_W). Otherwise, the filter will be a square. None if use output size to calculate filter_size. padding(int|tuple): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (padding_D, padding_H, padding_W). Otherwise, the padding_D = padding_H = padding_W = padding. Default: padding = 0. stride(int|tuple): The stride size. If stride is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (stride_D, stride_H, stride_W). Otherwise, the stride_D = stride_H = stride_W = stride. Default: stride = 1. dilation(int|tuple): The dilation size. If dilation is a tuple, it must contain three integers, (dilation_D, dilation_H, dilation_W). Otherwise, the dilation_D = dilation_H = dilation_W = dilation. Default: dilation = 1. groups(int): The groups number of the Conv3d transpose layer. Inspired by grouped convolution in Alex Krizhevsky's Deep CNN paper, in which when group=2, the first half of the filters is only connected to the first half of the input channels, while the second half of the filters is only connected to the second half of the input channels. Default: groups=1 param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of conv3d_transpose. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv3d_transpose will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of conv3d_transpose. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, conv3d_transpose will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. use_cudnn(bool): Use cudnn kernel or not, it is valid only when the cudnn library is installed. Default: True act (str): Activation type, if it is set to None, activation is not appended. Default: None. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable storing the convolution transpose result. Raises: ValueError: If the shapes of input, filter_size, stride, padding and groups mismatch. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 12, 32, 32], dtype='float32') conv3d_transpose = fluid.layers.conv3d_transpose(input=data, num_filters=2, filter_size=3) """ assert param_attr is not False, "param_attr should not be False in conv3d_transpose." l_type = "conv3d_transpose" helper = LayerHelper(l_type, **locals()) if not isinstance(input, Variable): raise TypeError("Input of conv3d_transpose must be Variable") input_channel = input.shape[1] padding = utils.convert_to_list(padding, 3, 'padding') stride = utils.convert_to_list(stride, 3, 'stride') dilation = utils.convert_to_list(dilation, 3, 'dilation') if not isinstance(use_cudnn, bool): raise ValueError("use_cudnn should be True or False") if filter_size is None: if output_size is None: raise ValueError("output_size must be set when filter_size is None") if isinstance(output_size, int): output_size = [output_size, output_size] d_in = input.shape[2] h_in = input.shape[3] w_in = input.shape[4] filter_size_d = (output_size[0] - (d_in - 1) * stride[0] + 2 * padding[0] - 1) // dilation[0] + 1 filter_size_h = (output_size[1] - (h_in - 1) * stride[1] + 2 * padding[1] - 1) // dilation[1] + 1 filter_size_w = (output_size[2] - (w_in - 1) * stride[2] + 2 * padding[2] - 1) // dilation[2] + 1 filter_size = [filter_size_d, filter_size_h, filter_size_w] else: filter_size = utils.convert_to_list(filter_size, 3, 'conv3d_transpose.filter_size') groups = 1 if groups is None else groups filter_shape = [input_channel, num_filters // groups] + filter_size img_filter = helper.create_parameter( dtype=input.dtype, shape=filter_shape, attr=helper.param_attr) pre_bias = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type=l_type, inputs={'Input': [input], 'Filter': [img_filter]}, outputs={'Output': pre_bias}, attrs={ 'strides': stride, 'paddings': padding, 'dilations': dilation, 'groups': groups, 'use_cudnn': use_cudnn }) pre_act = helper.append_bias_op(pre_bias, dim_start=1, dim_end=2) out = helper.append_activation(pre_act) return out
[docs]def sequence_expand(x, y, ref_level=-1, name=None): """Sequence Expand Layer. This layer will expand the input variable **x** according to specified level lod of **y**. Please note that lod level of **x** is at most 1 and rank of **x** is at least 2. When rank of **x** is greater than 2, then it would be viewed as a 2-D tensor. Following examples will explain how sequence_expand works: .. code-block:: text * Case 1 x is a LoDTensor: x.lod = [[2, 2]] x.data = [[a], [b], [c], [d]] x.dims = [4, 1] y is a LoDTensor: y.lod = [[2, 2], [3, 3, 1, 1]] ref_level: 0 then output is a 1-level LoDTensor: out.lod = [[2, 2, 2, 2]] out.data = [[a], [b], [a], [b], [c], [d], [c], [d]] out.dims = [8, 1] * Case 2 x is a Tensor: x.data = [[a], [b], [c]] x.dims = [3, 1] y is a LoDTensor: y.lod = [[2, 0, 3]] ref_level: -1 then output is a Tensor: out.data = [[a], [a], [c], [c], [c]] out.dims = [5, 1] Args: x (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. y (Variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. ref_level (int): Lod level of `y` to be referred by `x`. If set to -1, refer the last level of lod. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The expanded variable which is a LoDTensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[10, 20], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) out = layers.sequence_expand(x=x, y=y, ref_level=0) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_expand', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() tmp = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='sequence_expand', inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': tmp}, attrs={'ref_level': ref_level}) return tmp
[docs]def sequence_expand_as(x, y, name=None): """Sequence Expand As Layer. This layer will expand the input variable **x** according to the zeroth level lod of **y**. Current implementation requires the level number of Input(Y)'s lod must be 1, and the first dimension of Input(X) should be equal to the size of Input(Y)'s zeroth level lod, and lod of Input(X) is not considered. Following examples will explain how sequence_expand_as works: .. code-block:: text * Case 1: Given a 1-level LoDTensor input(X) X.data = [[a], [b], [c], [d]] X.dims = [4, 1] and input(Y) Y.lod = [[0, 3, 6, 7, 8]] ref_level: 0 then we get 1-level LoDTensor Out.lod = [[0, 3, 6, 7, 8]] Out.data = [[a], [a], [a], [b], [b], [b], [c], [d]] Out.dims = [8, 1] * Case 2: Given a common Tensor input(X) X.data = [[a, b], [c, d], [e, f]] X.dims = [3, 2] and input(Y) Y.lod = [[0, 2, 3, 6]] ref_level: 0 then we get a common LoDTensor Out.lod = [[0, 2, 3, 6]] Out.data = [[a, b], [a, b] [c, d], [e, f], [e, f], [e, f]] Out.dims = [6, 2] Args: x (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. y (Variable): The input variable which is a LoDTensor. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The expanded variable which is a LoDTensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[10, 20], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) out = layers.sequence_expand_as(x=x, y=y) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_expand_as', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() tmp = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='sequence_expand_as', inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': tmp}) return tmp
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sequence_pad(x, pad_value, maxlen=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(Variable): Input variable which should contain lod information. pad_value(Variable): The Variable that holds values that will be fill into padded steps. It can be a scalar or a tensor whose shape equals to time steps in sequences. If it's a scalar, it will be automatically broadcasted to the shape of time step. maxlen(int, default None): The length of padded sequences. It can be None or any positive int. When it is None, all sequences will be padded up to the length of the longest one among them; when it a certain positive value, it must be greater than the length of the longest original sequence. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The padded sequence batch and the original lengths before padding. All sequences has the same length. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import numpy x = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[10, 5], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) pad_value = fluid.layers.assign( input=numpy.array([0.0], dtype=numpy.float32)) out = fluid.layers.sequence_pad(x=x, pad_value=pad_value) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_pad', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) length = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) pad_value.stop_gradient = True length.stop_gradient = True if maxlen is None: maxlen = -1 helper.append_op( type='sequence_pad', inputs={'X': x, 'PadValue': pad_value}, outputs={'Out': out, 'Length': length}, attrs={'padded_length': maxlen}) return out, length
[docs]def sequence_unpad(x, length, name=None): """ **Sequence Unpad Layer** This layer removes the padding data in the input sequences and convert them into sequences with actual length as output, identitied by lod information. .. code-block:: text Example: Given input Variable **x**: x.data = [[ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0], [ 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0], [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, 15.0]], in which there are 3 sequences padded to length 5, and the acutal length specified by input Variable **length**: length.data = [[2], [3], [4]], after unpadding, the output Variable will be: out.data = [[1.0, 2.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0]] out.lod = [[2, 3, 4]] Args: x(Variable): Input Variable which contains the padded sequences with equal length. length(Variable): The Variable that specifies the actual ength of sequences after unpadding. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The Variable contains the unpadded sequences. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10, 5], dtype='float32') len = fluid.layers.data(name='length', shape=[1], dtype='int64') out = fluid.layers.sequence_unpad(x=x, length=len) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_unpad', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) length.stop_gradient = True helper.append_op( type='sequence_unpad', inputs={'X': x, 'Length': length}, outputs={'Out': out}) return out
[docs]def beam_search_decode(ids, scores, beam_size, end_id, name=None): """ Beam Search Decode Layer. This layer constructs the full hypotheses for each source sentence by walking back along the LoDTensorArray :attr:`ids` whose lods can be used to restore the path in the beam search tree. Please see the following demo for a fully beam search usage example: fluid/tests/book/test_machine_translation.py Args: ids(Variable): The LodTensorArray variable containing the selected ids of all steps. scores(Variable): The LodTensorArray variable containing the selected scores of all steps. beam_size(int): The beam width used in beam search. end_id(int): The id of end token. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The LodTensor pair containing the generated id sequences \ and the corresponding scores. The shapes and lods of the two \ LodTensor are same. The lod level is 2 and the two levels \ separately indicate how many hypotheses each source sentence has \ and how many ids each hypothesis has. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # Suppose `ids` and `scores` are LodTensorArray variables reserving # the selected ids and scores of all steps ids = fluid.layers.create_array(dtype='int64') scores = fluid.layers.create_array(dtype='float32') finished_ids, finished_scores = fluid.layers.beam_search_decode( ids, scores, beam_size=5, end_id=0) """ helper = LayerHelper('beam_search_decode', **locals()) sentence_ids = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=ids.dtype) sentence_scores = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=ids.dtype) helper.append_op( type="beam_search_decode", inputs={"Ids": ids, "Scores": scores}, outputs={ "SentenceIds": sentence_ids, "SentenceScores": sentence_scores }, attrs={"beam_size": beam_size, "end_id": end_id}) return sentence_ids, sentence_scores
[docs]def lstm_unit(x_t, hidden_t_prev, cell_t_prev, forget_bias=0.0, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, name=None): """Lstm unit layer. The equation of a lstm step is: .. math:: i_t & = \sigma(W_{x_i}x_{t} + W_{h_i}h_{t-1} + b_i) f_t & = \sigma(W_{x_f}x_{t} + W_{h_f}h_{t-1} + b_f) c_t & = f_tc_{t-1} + i_t tanh (W_{x_c}x_t + W_{h_c}h_{t-1} + b_c) o_t & = \sigma(W_{x_o}x_{t} + W_{h_o}h_{t-1} + b_o) h_t & = o_t tanh(c_t) The inputs of lstm unit include :math:`x_t`, :math:`h_{t-1}` and :math:`c_{t-1}`. The 2nd dimensions of :math:`h_{t-1}` and :math:`c_{t-1}` should be same. The implementation separates the linear transformation and non-linear transformation apart. Here, we take :math:`i_t` as an example. The linear transformation is applied by calling a `fc` layer and the equation is: .. math:: L_{i_t} = W_{x_i}x_{t} + W_{h_i}h_{t-1} + b_i The non-linear transformation is applied by calling `lstm_unit_op` and the equation is: .. math:: i_t = \sigma(L_{i_t}) This layer has two outputs including :math:`h_t` and :math:`c_t`. Args: x_t (Variable): The input value of current step, a 2-D tensor with shape M x N, M for batch size and N for input size. hidden_t_prev (Variable): The hidden value of lstm unit, a 2-D tensor with shape M x S, M for batch size and S for size of lstm unit. cell_t_prev (Variable): The cell value of lstm unit, a 2-D tensor with shape M x S, M for batch size and S for size of lstm unit. forget_bias (float): The forget bias of lstm unit. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable hidden-hidden weights. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, lstm_unit will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|None): The bias attribute for the learnable bias weights. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, lstm_unit will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: tuple: The hidden value and cell value of lstm unit. Raises: ValueError: The ranks of **x_t**, **hidden_t_prev** and **cell_t_prev** not be 2 or the 1st dimensions of **x_t**, **hidden_t_prev** and **cell_t_prev** not be the same or the 2nd dimensions of **hidden_t_prev** and **cell_t_prev** not be the same. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dict_dim, emb_dim, hidden_dim = 128, 64, 512 data = fluid.layers.data(name='step_data', shape=[1], dtype='int32') x = fluid.layers.embedding(input=data, size=[dict_dim, emb_dim]) pre_hidden = fluid.layers.data( name='pre_hidden', shape=[hidden_dim], dtype='float32') pre_cell = fluid.layers.data( name='pre_cell', shape=[hidden_dim], dtype='float32') hidden = fluid.layers.lstm_unit( x_t=x, hidden_t_prev=pre_hidden, cell_t_prev=pre_cell) """ helper = LayerHelper('lstm_unit', **locals()) if len(x_t.shape) != 2: raise ValueError("Rank of x_t must be 2.") if len(hidden_t_prev.shape) != 2: raise ValueError("Rank of hidden_t_prev must be 2.") if len(cell_t_prev.shape) != 2: raise ValueError("Rank of cell_t_prev must be 2.") if x_t.shape[0] != hidden_t_prev.shape[0] or x_t.shape[ 0] != cell_t_prev.shape[0]: raise ValueError("The 1st dimensions of x_t, hidden_t_prev and " "cell_t_prev must be the same.") if hidden_t_prev.shape[1] != cell_t_prev.shape[1]: raise ValueError("The 2nd dimensions of hidden_t_prev and " "cell_t_prev must be the same.") if bias_attr is None: bias_attr = ParamAttr() size = cell_t_prev.shape[1] concat_out = concat(input=[x_t, hidden_t_prev], axis=1) fc_out = fc(input=concat_out, size=4 * size, param_attr=param_attr, bias_attr=bias_attr) dtype = x_t.dtype c = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) h = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='lstm_unit', inputs={"X": fc_out, "C_prev": cell_t_prev}, outputs={"C": c, "H": h}, attrs={"forget_bias": forget_bias}) return h, c
[docs]def reduce_sum(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the sum of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimensions along which the sum is performed. If :attr:`None`, sum all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool|False): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # x is a Tensor variable with following elements: # [[0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.9] # [0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 0.7]] # Each example is followed by the corresponding output tensor. x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[4, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_sum(x) # [3.5] fluid.layers.reduce_sum(x, dim=0) # [0.3, 0.5, 1.1, 1.6] fluid.layers.reduce_sum(x, dim=-1) # [1.9, 1.6] fluid.layers.reduce_sum(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[1.9], [1.6]] # y is a Tensor variable with shape [2, 2, 2] and elements as below: # [[[1, 2], [3, 4]], # [[5, 6], [7, 8]]] # Each example is followed by the corresponding output tensor. y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[2, 2, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_sum(y, dim=[1, 2]) # [10, 26] fluid.layers.reduce_sum(y, dim=[0, 1]) # [16, 20] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_sum', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_sum', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_mean(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the mean of the input tensor's elements along the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimension along which the mean is computed. If `None`, compute the mean over all elements of :attr:`input` and return a variable with a single element, otherwise it must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank(input) + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set `None`, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced mean Variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # x is a Tensor variable with following elements: # [[0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.9] # [0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 0.7]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[4, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_mean(x) # [0.4375] fluid.layers.reduce_mean(x, dim=0) # [0.15, 0.25, 0.55, 0.8] fluid.layers.reduce_mean(x, dim=-1) # [0.475, 0.4] fluid.layers.reduce_mean(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[0.475], [0.4]] # y is a Tensor variable with shape [2, 2, 2] and elements as below: # [[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]], # [[5.0, 6.0], [7.0, 8.0]]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[2, 2, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_mean(y, dim=[1, 2]) # [2.5, 6.5] fluid.layers.reduce_mean(y, dim=[0, 1]) # [4.0, 5.0] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_mean', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_mean', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_max(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the maximum of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimension along which the maximum is computed. If :attr:`None`, compute the maximum over all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # x is a Tensor variable with following elements: # [[0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.9] # [0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 0.7]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[4, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_max(x) # [0.9] fluid.layers.reduce_max(x, dim=0) # [0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9] fluid.layers.reduce_max(x, dim=-1) # [0.9, 0.7] fluid.layers.reduce_max(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[0.9], [0.7]] # y is a Tensor variable with shape [2, 2, 2] and elements as below: # [[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]], # [[5.0, 6.0], [7.0, 8.0]]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[2, 2, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_max(y, dim=[1, 2]) # [4.0, 8.0] fluid.layers.reduce_max(y, dim=[0, 1]) # [7.0, 8.0] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_max', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_max', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_min(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the minimum of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimensions along which the minimum is computed. If :attr:`None`, compute the minimum over all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # x is a Tensor variable with following elements: # [[0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.9] # [0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 0.7]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[4, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_min(x) # [0.1] fluid.layers.reduce_min(x, dim=0) # [0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7] fluid.layers.reduce_min(x, dim=-1) # [0.2, 0.1] fluid.layers.reduce_min(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[0.2], [0.1]] # y is a Tensor variable with shape [2, 2, 2] and elements as below: # [[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]], # [[5.0, 6.0], [7.0, 8.0]]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[2, 2, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_min(y, dim=[1, 2]) # [1.0, 5.0] fluid.layers.reduce_min(y, dim=[0, 1]) # [1.0, 2.0] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_min', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_min', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_prod(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the product of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimensions along which the product is performed. If :attr:`None`, multipy all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool|False): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # x is a Tensor variable with following elements: # [[0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.9] # [0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 0.7]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[4, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_prod(x) # [0.0002268] fluid.layers.reduce_prod(x, dim=0) # [0.02, 0.06, 0.3, 0.63] fluid.layers.reduce_prod(x, dim=-1) # [0.027, 0.0084] fluid.layers.reduce_prod(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[0.027], [0.0084]] # y is a Tensor variable with shape [2, 2, 2] and elements as below: # [[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]], # [[5.0, 6.0], [7.0, 8.0]]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[2, 2, 2], dtype='float32') fluid.layers.reduce_prod(y, dim=[1, 2]) # [24.0, 1680.0] fluid.layers.reduce_prod(y, dim=[0, 1]) # [105.0, 384.0] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_prod', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_prod', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_all(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the ``logical and`` of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimension along which the logical and is computed. If :attr:`None`, compute the logical and over all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers import numpy as np # x is a bool Tensor variable with following elements: # [[True, False] # [True, True]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. fluid.layers.reduce_all(x) # False fluid.layers.reduce_all(x, dim=0) # [True, False] fluid.layers.reduce_all(x, dim=-1) # [False, True] fluid.layers.reduce_all(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[False], [True]] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_all', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_all', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def reduce_any(input, dim=None, keep_dim=False, name=None): """ Computes the ``logical or`` of tensor elements over the given dimension. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. dim (list|int|None): The dimension along which the logical or is computed. If :attr:`None`, compute the logical or over all elements of :attr:`input` and return a Tensor variable with a single element, otherwise must be in the range :math:`[-rank(input), rank(input))`. If :math:`dim[i] < 0`, the dimension to reduce is :math:`rank + dim[i]`. keep_dim (bool): Whether to reserve the reduced dimension in the output Tensor. The result tensor will have one fewer dimension than the :attr:`input` unless :attr:`keep_dim` is true. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The reduced Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers import numpy as np # x is a bool Tensor variable with following elements: # [[True, False] # [False, False]] # Each example is followed by the correspending output tensor. fluid.layers.reduce_any(x) # True fluid.layers.reduce_any(x, dim=0) # [True, False] fluid.layers.reduce_any(x, dim=-1) # [True, False] fluid.layers.reduce_any(x, dim=1, keep_dim=True) # [[True], [False]] """ helper = LayerHelper('reduce_any', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) if dim is not None and not isinstance(dim, list): dim = [dim] helper.append_op( type='reduce_any', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'dim': dim if dim != None else [0], 'keep_dim': keep_dim, 'reduce_all': True if dim == None else False }) return out
[docs]def split(input, num_or_sections, dim=-1, name=None): """ Split the input tensor into multiple sub-tensors. Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. num_or_sections (int|list): If :attr:`num_or_sections` is an integer, then the integer indicates the number of equal sized sub-tensors that the tensor will be divided into. If :attr:`num_or_sections` is a list of integers, the length of list indicates the number of sub-tensors and the integers indicate the sizes of sub-tensors' :attr:`dim` dimension orderly. dim (int): The dimension along which to split. If :math:`dim < 0`, the dimension to split along is :math:`rank(input) + dim`. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: list(Variable): The list of segmented tensor variables. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # input is a variable which shape is [-1, 3, 9, 5] input = fluid.layers.data( name="input", shape=[3, 9, 5], dtype="float32") x0, x1, x2 = fluid.layers.split(x, num_or_sections=3, dim=2) # x0.shape [-1, 3, 3, 5] # x1.shape [-1, 3, 3, 5] # x2.shape [-1, 3, 3, 5] x0, x1, x2 = fluid.layers.split(input, num_or_sections=3, dim=2) # x0.shape [-1, 3, 2, 5] # x1.shape [-1, 3, 3, 5] # x2.shape [-1, 3, 4, 5] """ helper = LayerHelper('split', **locals()) input_shape = input.shape dim = (len(input_shape) + dim) if dim < 0 else dim if isinstance(num_or_sections, int): assert num_or_sections > 1, 'num_or_sections must be more than 1.' num = num_or_sections else: assert len(num_or_sections) <= input_shape[ dim], 'len(num_or_sections) must not be more than input.shape[dim].' num = len(num_or_sections) outs = [ helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) for i in range(num) ] helper.append_op( type='split', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': outs}, attrs={ 'num': num_or_sections if isinstance(num_or_sections, int) else 0, 'sections': num_or_sections if isinstance(num_or_sections, list) else [], 'axis': dim }) return outs
[docs]def l2_normalize(x, axis, epsilon=1e-12, name=None): """ **L2 normalize Layer** The l2 normalize layer normalizes `x` along dimension `axis` using an L2 norm. For a 1-D tensor (`dim` is fixed to 0), this layer computes .. math:: y = \\frac{x}{ \sqrt{\sum {x^2} + epsion }} For `x` with more dimensions, this layer independently normalizes each 1-D slice along dimension `axis`. Args: x(Variable|list): The input tensor to l2_normalize layer. axis(int): The axis on which to apply normalization. If `axis < 0`, \ the dimension to normalization is rank(X) + axis. -1 is the last dimension. epsilon(float): The epsilon value is used to avoid division by zero, \ the default value is 1e-12. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer \ will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output tensor variable is the same shape with `x`. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name="data", shape=(3, 17, 13), dtype="float32") normed = fluid.layers.l2_normalize(x=data, axis=1) """ if len(x.shape) == 1: axis = 0 helper = LayerHelper("l2_normalize", **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) norm = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type="norm", inputs={"X": x}, outputs={"Out": out, "Norm": norm}, attrs={ "axis": 1 if axis is None else axis, "epsilon": epsilon, }) return out
[docs]def matmul(x, y, transpose_x=False, transpose_y=False, alpha=1.0, name=None): """ Applies matrix multiplication to two tensors. Currently, the input tensors' rank can be any, but when the rank of any inputs is bigger than 3, this two inputs' rank should be equal. The actual behavior depends on the shapes of :math:`x`, :math:`y` and the flag values of :attr:`transpose_x`, :attr:`transpose_y`. Specifically: - If a transpose flag is specified, the last two dimensions of the tensor are transposed. If the tensor is rank-1 of shape :math:`[D]`, then for :math:`x` it is treated as :math:`[1, D]` in nontransposed form and as :math:`[D, 1]` in transposed form, whereas for :math:`y` it is the opposite: It is treated as :math:`[D, 1]` in nontransposed form and as :math:`[1, D]` in transposed form. - After transpose, the two tensors are 2-D or n-D and matrix multiplication performs in the following way. - If both are 2-D, they are multiplied like conventional matrices. - If either is n-D, it is treated as a stack of matrices residing in the last two dimensions and a batched matrix multiply supporting broadcast applies on the two tensors. Also note that if the raw tensor :math:`x` or :math:`y` is rank-1 and nontransposed, the prepended or appended dimension :math:`1` will be removed after matrix multiplication. Args: x (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. y (Variable): The input variable which is a Tensor or LoDTensor. transpose_x (bool): Whether to transpose :math:`x` before multiplication. transpose_y (bool): Whether to transpose :math:`y` before multiplication. alpha (float): The scale of output. Default 1.0. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The product Tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python # Examples to clarify shapes of the inputs and output # x: [B, ..., M, K], y: [B, ..., K, N] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [B, ..., M, N] # x: [B, M, K], y: [B, K, N] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [B, M, N] # x: [B, M, K], y: [K, N] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [B, M, N] # x: [M, K], y: [K, N] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [M, N] # x: [B, M, K], y: [K] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [B, M] # x: [K], y: [K] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y) # out: [1] # x: [M], y: [N] # fluid.layers.matmul(x, y, True, True) # out: [M, N] import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[2, 3], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[3, 2], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.matmul(x, y, True, True) """ def __check_input(x, y): x_shape = list(x.shape) y_shape = list(y.shape) if len(x_shape) == 1: x_shape = [1] + x_shape if len(y_shape) == 1: y_shape = y_shape + [1] # check the inner 2 dimensions if transpose_x: x_shape[-2], x_shape[-1] = x_shape[-1], x_shape[-2] if transpose_y: y_shape[-2], y_shape[-1] = y_shape[-1], y_shape[-2] if x_shape[-1] != y_shape[-2]: raise ValueError("Invalid inputs for matmul. x: %s, y: %s\n" % (x_shape, y_shape)) if len(y_shape) > 2 and len(x_shape) > 2: for i, dim_x in enumerate(x_shape[:-2]): # don't check neg shape if dim_x < 0 or y_shape[i] < 0: continue if dim_x != y_shape[i]: raise ValueError("Invalid inputs for matmul. x(%s), y(%s)" % (x.shape, y.shape)) __check_input(x, y) helper = LayerHelper('matmul', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='matmul', inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'transpose_X': transpose_x, 'transpose_Y': transpose_y, 'alpha': float(alpha), }) return out
[docs]def topk(input, k, name=None): """ This operator is used to find values and indices of the k largest entries for the last dimension. If the input is a vector (1-D Tensor), finds the k largest entries in the vector and outputs their values and indices as vectors. Thus values[j] is the j-th largest entry in input, and its index is indices[j]. If the input is a Tensor with higher rank, this operator computes the top k entries along the last dimension. For example: .. code-block:: text If: input = [[5, 4, 2, 3], [9, 7, 10, 25], [6, 2, 10, 1]] k = 2 Then: The first output: values = [[5, 4], [10, 25], [6, 10]] The second output: indices = [[0, 1], [2, 3], [0, 2]] Args: input(Variable): The input variable which can be a vector or Tensor with higher rank. k(int | Variable): The number of top elements to look for along the last dimension of input. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None Returns: Tuple[Variable]: A tuple with two elements. Each element is a Variable. The first one is k largest elements along each last dimensional slice. The second one is indices of values within the last dimension of input. Raises: ValueError: If k < 1 or k is not less than the last dimension of input Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers input = layers.data(name="input", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32') top5_values, top5_indices = layers.topk(input, k=5) """ helper = LayerHelper("top_k", **locals()) values = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) indices = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") inputs = {"X": [input]} attrs = None if isinstance(k, Variable): inputs['K'] = k else: attrs = {'k': k} helper.append_op( type="top_k", inputs=inputs, outputs={"Out": [values], "Indices": [indices]}, attrs=attrs) values.stop_gradient = True indices.stop_gradient = True return values, indices
[docs]def edit_distance(input, label, normalized=True, ignored_tokens=None): """ Edit distance operator computes the edit distances between a batch of hypothesis strings and their references. Edit distance, also called Levenshtein distance, measures how dissimilar two strings are by counting the minimum number of operations to transform one string into anthor. Here the operations include insertion, deletion, and substitution. For example, given hypothesis string A = "kitten" and reference B = "sitting", the edit distance is 3 for A will be transformed into B at least after two substitutions and one insertion: "kitten" -> "sitten" -> "sittin" -> "sitting" The input is a LoDTensor consisting of all the hypothesis strings with the total number denoted by `batch_size`, and the separation is specified by the LoD information. And the `batch_size` reference strings are arranged in order in the same way in the input LoDTensor. The output contains the `batch_size` results and each stands for the edit distance for a pair of strings respectively. If Attr(normalized) is true, the edit distance will be divided by the length of reference string. Args: input(Variable): The indices for hypothesis strings. label(Variable): The indices for reference strings. normalized(bool, default True): Indicated whether to normalize the edit distance by the length of reference string. ignored_tokens(list<int>, default None): Tokens that should be removed before calculating edit distance. name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: sequence-to-sequence edit distance in shape [batch_size, 1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[1], dtype='int64') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[1], dtype='int64') cost, _ = fluid.layers.edit_distance(input=x, label=y) cpu = fluid.core.CPUPlace() exe = fluid.Executor(cpu) exe.run(fluid.default_startup_program()) import numpy x_ = numpy.random.randint(5, size=(2, 1)).astype('int64') y_ = numpy.random.randint(5, size=(2, 1)).astype('int64') print(x_) print(y_) x = fluid.create_lod_tensor(x_, [[2]], cpu) y = fluid.create_lod_tensor(y_, [[2]], cpu) outs = exe.run(feed={'x':x, 'y':y}, fetch_list=[cost.name]) print(outs) """ helper = LayerHelper("edit_distance", **locals()) # remove some tokens from input and labels if ignored_tokens is not None and len(ignored_tokens) > 0: erased_input = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") erased_label = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") helper.append_op( type="sequence_erase", inputs={"X": [input]}, outputs={"Out": [erased_input]}, attrs={"tokens": ignored_tokens}) input = erased_input helper.append_op( type="sequence_erase", inputs={"X": [label]}, outputs={"Out": [erased_label]}, attrs={"tokens": ignored_tokens}) label = erased_label # edit distance op edit_distance_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") sequence_num = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") helper.append_op( type="edit_distance", inputs={"Hyps": [input], "Refs": [label]}, outputs={"Out": [edit_distance_out], "SequenceNum": [sequence_num]}, attrs={"normalized": normalized}) return edit_distance_out, sequence_num
[docs]def ctc_greedy_decoder(input, blank, name=None): """ This op is used to decode sequences by greedy policy by below steps: 1. Get the indexes of max value for each row in input. a.k.a. numpy.argmax(input, axis=0). 2. For each sequence in result of step1, merge repeated tokens between two blanks and delete all blanks. A simple example as below: .. code-block:: text Given: input.data = [[0.6, 0.1, 0.3, 0.1], [0.3, 0.2, 0.4, 0.1], [0.1, 0.5, 0.1, 0.3], [0.5, 0.1, 0.3, 0.1], [0.5, 0.1, 0.3, 0.1], [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.4], [0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.5], [0.5, 0.1, 0.3, 0.1]] input.lod = [[4, 4]] Computation: step1: Apply argmax to first input sequence which is input.data[0:4]. Then we get: [[0], [2], [1], [0]] step2: merge repeated tokens and remove blank which is 0. Then we get first output sequence: [[2], [1]] Finally: output.data = [[2], [1], [3]] output.lod = [[2, 1]] Args: input(Variable): (LoDTensor<float>), the probabilities of variable-length sequences, which is a 2-D Tensor with LoD information. It's shape is [Lp, num_classes + 1], where Lp is the sum of all input sequences' length and num_classes is the true number of classes. (not including the blank label). blank(int): the blank label index of Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss, which is in thehalf-opened interval [0, num_classes + 1). name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: CTC greedy decode result which is a 2-D tensor with shape [Lp, 1]. \ 'Lp' is the sum if all output sequences' length. If all the sequences \ in result were empty, the result LoDTensor will be [-1] with \ LoD [[]] and dims [1, 1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[8], dtype='float32') cost = fluid.layers.ctc_greedy_decoder(input=x, blank=0) """ helper = LayerHelper("ctc_greedy_decoder", **locals()) _, topk_indices = topk(input, k=1) # ctc align op ctc_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype="int64") helper.append_op( type="ctc_align", inputs={"Input": [topk_indices]}, outputs={"Output": [ctc_out]}, attrs={"merge_repeated": True, "blank": blank}) return ctc_out
[docs]def warpctc(input, label, blank=0, norm_by_times=False, use_cudnn=False): """ An operator integrating the open source Warp-CTC library (https://github.com/baidu-research/warp-ctc) to compute Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss. It can be aliased as softmax with CTC, since a native softmax activation is interated to the Warp-CTC library, to to normlize values for each row of the input tensor. Args: input (Variable): The unscaled probabilities of variable-length sequences, which is a 2-D Tensor with LoD information. It's shape is [Lp, num_classes + 1], where Lp is the sum of all input sequences' length and num_classes is the true number of classes. (not including the blank label). label (Variable): The ground truth of variable-length sequence, which is a 2-D Tensor with LoD information. It is of the shape [Lg, 1], where Lg is th sum of all labels' length. blank (int, default 0): The blank label index of Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss, which is in the half-opened interval [0, num_classes + 1). norm_by_times(bool, default false): Whether to normalize the gradients by the number of time-step, which is also the sequence's length. There is no need to normalize the gradients if warpctc layer was follewed by a mean_op. use_cudnn (bool, default false): Whether to use cudnn. Returns: Variable: The Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss, which is a 2-D Tensor of the shape [batch_size, 1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[11, 8], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) predict = fluid.layers.data(name='predict', shape=[11, 1], dtype='float32') cost = fluid.layers.warpctc(input=predict, label=label) """ helper = LayerHelper('warpctc', **locals()) loss_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) grad_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type='warpctc', inputs={'Logits': [input], 'Label': [label]}, outputs={'WarpCTCGrad': [grad_out], 'Loss': [loss_out]}, attrs={ 'blank': blank, 'norm_by_times': norm_by_times, 'use_cudnn': use_cudnn }) return loss_out
[docs]def sequence_reshape(input, new_dim): """ **Sequence Reshape Layer** This layer will rearrange the input sequences. The new dimension is set by user. Length of each sequence is computed according to original length, original dimension and new dimension. The following example will help to illustrate the function of this layer: .. code-block:: text x is a LoDTensor: x.lod = [[0, 2, 6]] x.data = [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8], [9, 10], [11, 12]] x.dims = [6, 2] set new_dim = 4 then out is a LoDTensor: out.lod = [[0, 1, 3]] out.data = [[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 11, 12]] out.dims = [3, 4] Currently, only 1-level LoDTensor is supported and please make sure (original length * original dimension) can be divided by new dimension with no remainder for each sequence. Args: input (Variable): A 2-D LoDTensor with shape being [N, M] where M for dimension. new_dim (int): New dimension that the input LoDTensor is reshaped to. Returns: Variable: Reshaped LoDTensor according to new dimension. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[2, 6], append_batch_size=False, dtype='float32', lod_level=1) x_reshaped = fluid.layers.sequence_reshape(input=x, new_dim=4) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_reshape', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(helper.input_dtype()) helper.append_op( type='sequence_reshape', inputs={'X': [input]}, outputs={'Out': [out]}, attrs={'new_dim': new_dim}) return out
# FIXME(wuyi): let docstring_checker.py understand @autodoc. # For now, the comments in c++ use types like Tensor, but in python side # the type is often "Variable", and arguments may vary. @templatedoc(op_type="nce")
[docs]def nce(input, label, num_total_classes, sample_weight=None, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, num_neg_samples=None, name=None, sampler="uniform", custom_dist=None, seed=0, is_sparse=False): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): input variable. label (Variable): label. num_total_classes (int):${num_total_classes_comment} sample_weight (Variable|None): A Variable of shape [batch_size, 1] storing a weight for each sample. The default weight for each sample is 1.0. param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of nce. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, nce will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of nce. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, nce will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. num_neg_samples (int): ${num_neg_samples_comment} name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. sampler (str): The sampler used to sample class from negtive classes. It can be 'uniform', 'log_uniform' or 'custom_dist'. default: 'uniform'. custom_dist (float[]): A float[] with size=num_total_classes. It is used when sampler is set to 'custom_dist'. custom_dist[i] is the probsbility of i-th class to be sampled. default: None. seed (int): The seed used in sampler. default: 0. is_sparse(bool): The flag indicating whether to use sparse update, the weight@GRAD and bias@GRAD will be changed to SelectedRows. Returns: Variable: The output nce loss. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import numpy as np window_size = 5 words = [] for i in xrange(window_size): words.append(fluid.layers.data( name='word_{0}'.format(i), shape=[1], dtype='int64')) dict_size = 10000 label_word = int(window_size / 2) + 1 embs = [] for i in xrange(window_size): if i == label_word: continue emb = fluid.layers.embedding(input=words[i], size=[dict_size, 32], param_attr='embed', is_sparse=True) embs.append(emb) embs = fluid.layers.concat(input=embs, axis=1) loss = fluid.layers.nce(input=embs, label=words[label_word], num_total_classes=dict_size, param_attr='nce.w_0', bias_attr='nce.b_0') #or use custom distribution dist = np.array([0.05,0.5,0.1,0.3,0.05]) loss = fluid.layers.nce(input=embs, label=words[label_word], num_total_classes=5, param_attr='nce.w_1', bias_attr='nce.b_1', num_neg_samples=3, sampler="custom_dist", custom_dist=dist) """ helper = LayerHelper('nce', **locals()) assert isinstance(input, Variable) assert isinstance(label, Variable) dim = input.shape[1] num_true_class = label.shape[1] w = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[num_total_classes, dim], is_bias=False, dtype=input.dtype) inputs = {} if helper.bias_attr: b = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=[num_total_classes, 1], is_bias=True, dtype=input.dtype) inputs['Bias'] = b cost = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) sample_logits = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) sample_labels = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=label.dtype) inputs['Input'] = input inputs['Label'] = label inputs['Weight'] = w inputs['SampleWeight'] = sample_weight if sample_weight is not None else [] if sampler == "uniform": sampler = 0 elif sampler == "log_uniform": sampler = 1 elif sampler == "custom_dist": assert custom_dist is not None # assert isinstance(custom_dist, Variable) custom_dist_len = num_total_classes alias_probs_ = [0] * custom_dist_len alias_ = [0] * custom_dist_len bigs = [] littles = [] for i in range(custom_dist_len): normal_prob = custom_dist[i] * custom_dist_len if normal_prob - 1.0 > 0: bigs.append((i, normal_prob)) elif 1.0 - normal_prob > 0: littles.append((i, normal_prob)) else: alias_probs_[i] = normal_prob alias_[i] = -1 while len(bigs) and len(littles): big = bigs.pop(0) little = littles.pop(0) big_idx = big[0] big_prob = big[1] alias_probs_[little[0]] = little[1] alias_[little[0]] = big_idx big_left = big[1] + little[1] - 1 if big_left - 1.0 > 0: bigs.append((big_idx, big_left)) elif 1.0 - big_left > 0: littles.append((big_idx, big_left)) else: alias_probs_[big_idx] = big_left alias_[big_idx] = -1 if len(bigs): big = bigs.pop(0) alias_probs_[big[0]] = 1.0 alias_[big[0]] = -1 if len(littles): little = littles.pop(0) alias_probs_[little[0]] = 1.0 alias_[little[0]] = -1 def _init_by_numpy_array(numpy_array): ret = helper.create_parameter( attr=ParamAttr(), shape=numpy_array.shape, dtype=numpy_array.dtype, default_initializer=NumpyArrayInitializer(numpy_array)) ret.stop_gradient = True return ret inputs['CustomDistProbs'] = _init_by_numpy_array( np.array(custom_dist).astype('float32')) inputs['CustomDistAlias'] = _init_by_numpy_array( np.array(alias_).astype('int32')) inputs['CustomDistAliasProbs'] = _init_by_numpy_array( np.array(alias_probs_).astype('float32')) sampler = 2 else: raise Exception("Unsupported sampler type.") if num_neg_samples is None: num_neg_samples = 10 else: num_neg_samples = int(num_neg_samples) remote_prefetch = is_sparse print( "With sparse mode, if your models has only small parameter prefetch may cause speed down" ) attrs = { 'num_total_classes': int(num_total_classes), 'num_neg_samples': num_neg_samples, 'seed': seed, 'sampler': sampler, 'is_sparse': is_sparse, 'remote_prefetch': remote_prefetch } helper.append_op( type='nce', inputs=inputs, outputs={ 'Cost': cost, 'SampleLogits': sample_logits, 'SampleLabels': sample_labels }, attrs=attrs) return cost / (num_neg_samples + 1)
[docs]def hsigmoid(input, label, num_classes, param_attr=None, bias_attr=None, name=None, path_table=None, path_code=None, is_custom=False, is_sparse=False): """ The hierarchical sigmoid operator is used to accelerate the training process of language model. This operator organizes the classes into a complete binary tree, or you can use is_custom to pass your own tree to implement hierarchical. Each leaf node represents a class(a word) and each internal node acts as a binary classifier. For each word there's a unique path from root to it's leaf node, hsigmoid calculate the cost for each internal node on the path, and sum them to get a total cost. hsigmoid can achive a acceleration from :math:`O(N)` to :math:`O(logN)`, where :math:`N` represents the size of word dict. Using default tree you can Refer to `Hierarchical Probabilistic Neural Network Language Model <http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~lisa/pointeurs/hierarchical-nnlm-aistats05.pdf>`_ And if you want to use the costumed tree by set 'is_custom' as true you may need to do following things first: 1. using your word dict to build a binary tree, each leaf node should be an word of your word dict 2. build a dict to store word_id -> word's leaf to root path, we call it path_table. 3. build a dict to store word_id -> code of word's leaf to root path, we call it path_code. Code means label of each binary classification, using 1 indicate true, 0 indicate false. 4. now, each word should has its path and code along the path, you can pass a batch of path and code related to the same batch of inputs. Args: input (Variable): The input tensor variable with shape :math:`[N \\times D]`, where :math:`N` is the size of mini-batch, and :math:`D` is the feature size. label (Variable): The tensor variable contains labels of training data. It's a tensor with shape is :math:`[N \\times 1]`. num_classes: (int), The number of classes, must not be less than 2. with default tree this has to be set, it should never be None under is_custom=False, but while is_custom is true, it should be non leaf num which indicates the num of classes using by binary classify. param_attr (ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for learnable parameters/weights of hsigmoid. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, hsigmoid will create ParamAttr as param_attr. If the Initializer of the param_attr is not set, the parameter is initialized with Xavier. Default: None. bias_attr (ParamAttr|bool|None): The parameter attribute for the bias of hsigmoid. If it is set to False, no bias will be added to the output units. If it is set to None or one attribute of ParamAttr, hsigmoid will create ParamAttr as bias_attr. If the Initializer of the bias_attr is not set, the bias is initialized zero. Default: None. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Default: None. path_table: (Variable|None) this variable can store each batch of samples' path to root, it should be in leaf -> root order path_table should have the same shape with path_code, and for each sample i path_table[i] indicates a np.array like structure and each element in this array is indexes in parent nodes' Weight Matrix. path_code: (Variable|None) this variable can store each batch of samples' code, each code consist with every code of parent nodes. it should be in leaf -> root order is_custom: (bool|False)using user defined binary tree instead of default complete binary tree, if costum is set you need to set path_table/path_code/num_classes, otherwise num_classes should be set is_sparse: (bool|False)using sparse update instead of dense update, if set, the gradient of W and input will be sparse. Returns: Out: (LodTensor) The cost of hierarchical sigmoid operator. the shape is [N, 1] Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[2], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[1], dtype='int64') out = fluid.layers.hsigmoid(input=x, label=y, num_classes=6) """ helper = LayerHelper('hierarchical_sigmoid', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) pre_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) dim = input.shape[1] if ((num_classes is None) or (num_classes < 2)) and (not is_custom): raise ValueError( "num_classes must not be less than 2 with default tree") if (not is_custom) and (is_sparse): print("Sparse mode should not be used without custom tree") is_sparse = False if (not is_custom) and ((path_table is not None) or (path_code is not None)): raise ValueError( "only num_classes should be passed without custom tree") if (is_custom) and (path_code is None): raise ValueError("path_code should not be None with custom tree") elif (is_custom) and (path_table is None): raise ValueError("path_table should not be None with custom tree") elif (is_custom) and (num_classes is None): raise ValueError("num_classes should not be None with custom tree") else: pass weights = None remote_prefetch = is_sparse print( "With sparse mode, if your models has only small parameter prefetch may cause speed down" ) if not is_custom: weights = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[num_classes - 1, dim], is_bias=False, dtype=input.dtype) else: weights = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=[num_classes, dim], is_bias=False, dtype=input.dtype) inputs = { "X": input, "W": weights, "PathTable": path_table, "PathCode": path_code, "Label": label } if helper.bias_attr: if not is_custom: bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=[num_classes - 1, 1], is_bias=True, dtype=input.dtype) inputs['Bias'] = bias else: bias = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.bias_attr, shape=[num_classes, 1], is_bias=True, dtype=input.dtype) inputs['Bias'] = bias helper.append_op( type="hierarchical_sigmoid", inputs=inputs, outputs={"Out": out, "PreOut": pre_out, "W_Out": weights}, attrs={ "num_classes": num_classes, "is_sparse": is_sparse, "remote_prefetch": remote_prefetch }) return out
[docs]def transpose(x, perm, name=None): """ Permute the dimensions of `input` according to `perm`. The `i`-th dimension of the returned tensor will correspond to the perm[i]-th dimension of `input`. Args: x (Variable): The input Tensor. perm (list): A permutation of the dimensions of `input`. name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: A transposed Tensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python # use append_batch_size=False to avoid prepending extra # batch size in shape import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[5, 10, 15], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) x_transposed = fluid.layers.transpose(x, perm=[1, 0, 2]) """ if len(perm) != len(x.shape): raise ValueError( "Input(perm) is the permutation of dimensions of Input(input). " "Its length should be equal to Input(input)'s rank.") for idx, dim in enumerate(perm): if dim >= len(x.shape): raise ValueError( "Each element in perm should be less than x's rank. " "%d-th element in perm is %d which accesses x's rank %d." % (idx, perm[idx], len(x.shape))) helper = LayerHelper('transpose', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype) x_shape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='transpose2', inputs={'X': [x]}, outputs={'Out': [out], 'XShape': [x_shape]}, attrs={'axis': perm}) return out
[docs]def im2sequence(input, filter_size=1, stride=1, padding=0, input_image_size=None, out_stride=1, name=None): """ Extracts image patches from the input tensor to form a tensor of shape {input.batch_size * output_height * output_width, filter_size_H * filter_size_W * input.channels} which is similar with im2col. This op use filter / kernel to scan images and convert these images to sequences. After expanding, the number of time step are output_height * output_width for an image, in which output_height and output_width are calculated by below equation: .. math:: output\_size = 1 + \ (2 * padding + img\_size - block\_size + stride - 1) / stride And the dimension of each time step is block_y * block_x * input.channels. Args: input (Variable): The input should be a tensor in NCHW format. filter_size(int|tuple|None): The filter size. If filter_size is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (filter_size_H, filter_size_W). Otherwise, the filter will be a square. stride(int|tuple): The stride size. If stride is a tuple, it must contain two integers, (stride_H, stride_W). Otherwise, the stride_H = stride_W = stride. Default: stride = 1. padding(int|tuple): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it can contain two integers like (padding_H, padding_W) which means padding_up = padding_down = padding_H and padding_left = padding_right = padding_W. Or it can use (padding_up, padding_left, padding_down, padding_right) to indicate paddings of four direction. Otherwise, a scalar padding means padding_up = padding_down = padding_left = padding_right = padding Default: padding = 0. input_image_size(Variable): the input contains image real size.It's dim is [batchsize, 2]. It is dispensable.It is just for batch inference. out_stride(int|tuple): The scaling of image through CNN. It is dispensable. It is valid only when input_image_size is not null. If out_stride is tuple, it must contain two intergers, (out_stride_H, out_stride_W). Otherwise, the out_stride_H = out_stride_W = out_stride. name (int): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: output: The output is a LoDTensor with shape {input.batch_size * output_height * output_width, filter_size_H * filter_size_W * input.channels}. If we regard output as a matrix, each row of this matrix is a step of a sequence. Examples: .. code-block:: text Given: x = [[[[ 6. 2. 1.] [ 8. 3. 5.] [ 0. 2. 6.]] [[ 2. 4. 4.] [ 6. 3. 0.] [ 6. 4. 7.]]] [[[ 6. 7. 1.] [ 5. 7. 9.] [ 2. 4. 8.]] [[ 1. 2. 1.] [ 1. 3. 5.] [ 9. 0. 8.]]]] x.dims = {2, 2, 3, 3} And: filter = [2, 2] stride = [1, 1] padding = [0, 0] Then: output.data = [[ 6. 2. 8. 3. 2. 4. 6. 3.] [ 2. 1. 3. 5. 4. 4. 3. 0.] [ 8. 3. 0. 2. 6. 3. 6. 4.] [ 3. 5. 2. 6. 3. 0. 4. 7.] [ 6. 7. 5. 7. 1. 2. 1. 3.] [ 7. 1. 7. 9. 2. 1. 3. 5.] [ 5. 7. 2. 4. 1. 3. 9. 0.] [ 7. 9. 4. 8. 3. 5. 0. 8.]] output.dims = {8, 8} output.lod = [[4, 4]] Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') output = fluid.layers.im2sequence( input=data, stride=[1, 1], filter_size=[2, 2]) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") if isinstance(filter_size, int): filter_size = [filter_size, filter_size] if isinstance(stride, int): stride = [stride, stride] if isinstance(padding, int): padding = [padding, padding] if len(padding) == 2: padding.append(padding[0]) padding.append(padding[1]) inputs = {"X": input} attrs = {"kernels": filter_size, "strides": stride, "paddings": padding} if input_image_size: if isinstance(out_stride, int): out_stride = [out_stride, out_stride] inputs["Y"] = input_image_size attrs["out_stride"] = out_stride helper = LayerHelper('im2sequence', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=helper.input_dtype()) helper.append_op( type='im2sequence', inputs=inputs, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs=attrs) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def row_conv(input, future_context_size, param_attr=None, act=None): """ ${comment} Args: input (${x_type}): ${x_comment}. future_context_size (int): Future context size. Please note, the shape of convolution kernel is [future_context_size + 1, D]. param_attr (ParamAttr): Attributes of parameters, including name, initializer etc. act (str): Non-linear activation to be applied to output variable. Returns: ${out_comment}. Examples: >>> import paddle.fluid as fluid >>> x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[16], >>> dtype='float32', lod_level=1) >>> out = fluid.layers.row_conv(input=x, future_context_size=2) """ helper = LayerHelper('row_conv', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() filter_shape = [future_context_size + 1, input.shape[1]] filter_param = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=filter_shape, dtype=dtype) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='row_conv', inputs={'X': [input], 'Filter': [filter_param]}, outputs={'Out': [out]}) return helper.append_activation(out)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def multiplex(inputs, index): """ ${comment} For Example: .. code-block:: text case 1: Given: X = [[[0,0,3,4], [0,1,3,4], [0,2,4,4], [0,3,3,4]], [[1,0,3,4], [1,1,7,8], [1,2,4,2], [1,3,3,4]], [[2,0,3,4], [2,1,7,8], [2,2,4,2], [2,3,3,4]], [[3,0,3,4], [3,1,7,8], [3,2,4,2], [3,3,3,4]]] index = [3,0,1,2] out:[[3 0 3 4] // X[3,0] (3 = index[i], 0 = i); i=0 [0 1 3 4] // X[0,1] (0 = index[i], 1 = i); i=1 [1 2 4 2] // X[1,2] (0 = index[i], 2 = i); i=2 [2 3 3 4]] // X[2,3] (0 = index[i], 3 = i); i=3 case 2: Given: X = [[[0,0,3,4], [0,1,3,4], [0,2,4,4], [0,3,3,4]], [[1,0,3,4], [1,1,7,8], [1,2,4,2], [1,3,3,4]]] index = [1,0] out:[[1 0 3 4] // X[1,0] (3 = index[0], 0 = i); i=1 [0 1 3 4] // X[0,1] (0 = index[1], 1 = i); i=2 [0 2 4 4] // X[0,2] (0 = 0, 2 = i); i=3 [0 3 3 4]] // X[0,3] (0 = 0, 3 = i); i=4 Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x1 = fluid.layers.data(name='x1', shape=[4], dtype='float32') x2 = fluid.layers.data(name='x2', shape=[4], dtype='float32') index = fluid.layers.data(name='index', shape=[1], dtype='int32') out = fluid.layers.multiplex(inputs=[x1, x2], index=index) Args: inputs (list): ${x_comment}. index (${ids_type}): ${ids_comment}. Returns: ${out_comment}. """ helper = LayerHelper('multiplex', **locals()) if not isinstance(inputs, list) and len(inputs) < 2: raise ValueError("inputs should be a list object and contains at least " "2 elements.") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(inputs[0].dtype) helper.append_op( type='multiplex', inputs={'X': inputs, 'Ids': index}, outputs={'Out': [out]}) return out
[docs]def softmax_with_cross_entropy(logits, label, soft_label=False, ignore_index=kIgnoreIndex, numeric_stable_mode=True, return_softmax=False, axis=-1): """ **Softmax With Cross Entropy Operator.** Cross entropy loss with softmax is used as the output layer extensively. This operator computes the softmax normalized values for dimension :attr:`axis` of the input tensor, after which cross-entropy loss is computed. This provides a more numerically stable gradient. Because this operator performs a softmax on logits internally, it expects unscaled logits. This operator should not be used with the output of softmax operator since that would produce incorrect results. When the attribute :attr:`soft_label` is set :attr:`False`, this operators expects mutually exclusive hard labels, each sample in a batch is in exactly one class with a probability of 1.0. Each sample in the batch will have a single label. The equation is as follows: 1) Hard label (one-hot label, so every sample has exactly one class) .. math:: loss_j = -\\text{logit}_{label_j} + \\log\\left(\\sum_{i=0}^{K}\\exp(\\text{logit}_i)\\right), j = 1,..., K 2) Soft label (each sample can have a distribution over all classes) .. math:: loss_j = -\\sum_{i=0}^{K}\\text{label}_i \\left(\\text{logit}_i - \\log\\left(\\sum_{i=0}^{K} \\exp(\\text{logit}_i)\\right)\\right), j = 1,...,K 3) If :attr:`numeric_stable_mode` is :attr:`True`, softmax is calculated first by: .. math:: max_j &= \\max_{i=0}^{K}{\\text{logit}_i} log\\_max\\_sum_j &= \\log\\sum_{i=0}^{K}\\exp(logit_i - max_j) softmax_j &= \\exp(logit_j - max_j - {log\\_max\\_sum}_j) and then cross entropy loss is calculated by softmax and label. Args: logits (Variable): The input tensor of unscaled log probabilities. label (Variable): The ground truth tensor. If :attr:`soft_label` is set to :attr:`True`, Label is a Tensor<float/double> in the same shape with :attr:`logits`. If :attr:`soft_label` is set to :attr:`True`, Label is a Tensor<int64> in the same shape with :attr:`logits` expect shape in dimension :attr:`axis` as 1. soft_label (bool): A flag to indicate whether to interpretate the given labels as soft labels. Default False. ignore_index (int): Specifies a target value that is ignored and does not contribute to the input gradient. Only valid if :attr:`soft_label` is set to :attr:`False`. Default: kIgnoreIndex numeric_stable_mode (bool): A flag to indicate whether to use a more numerically stable algorithm. Only valid when :attr:`soft_label` is :attr:`False` and GPU is used. When :attr:`soft_label` is :attr:`True` or CPU is used, the algorithm is always numerically stable. Note that the speed may be slower when use stable algorithm. Default: True return_softmax (bool): A flag indicating whether to return the softmax along with the cross entropy loss. Default: False axis (int): The index of dimension to perform softmax calculations. It should be in range :math:`[-1, rank - 1]`, while :math:`rank` is the rank of input :attr:`logits`. Default: -1. Returns: Variable or Tuple of two Variables: Return the cross entropy loss if \ `return_softmax` is False, otherwise the tuple \ (loss, softmax), softmax is in the same shape \ with input logits and cross entropy loss is in \ the same shape with input logits except shape \ in dimension :attr:`axis` as 1. Examples: .. code-block:: python data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[128], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[1], dtype='int64') fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=data, size=100) out = fluid.layers.softmax_with_cross_entropy( logits=fc, label=label) """ helper = LayerHelper('softmax_with_cross_entropy', **locals()) softmax = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) loss = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) helper.append_op( type='softmax_with_cross_entropy', inputs={'Logits': logits, 'Label': label}, outputs={'Softmax': softmax, 'Loss': loss}, attrs={ 'soft_label': soft_label, 'ignore_index': ignore_index, 'numeric_stable_mode': numeric_stable_mode, 'axis': axis }) if return_softmax: return loss, softmax return loss
[docs]def sampled_softmax_with_cross_entropy(logits, label, num_samples, num_true=1, remove_accidental_hits=True, use_customized_samples=False, customized_samples=None, customized_probabilities=None, seed=0): """ **Sampled Softmax With Cross Entropy Operator.** Cross entropy loss with sampled softmax is used as the output layer for larger output classes extensively. This operator samples a number of samples for all examples, and computes the softmax normalized values for each row of the sampled tensor, after which cross-entropy loss is computed. Because this operator performs a softmax on logits internally, it expects unscaled logits. This operator should not be used with the output of softmax operator since that would produce incorrect results. For examples with T true labels (T >= 1), we assume that each true label has a probability of 1/T. For each sample, S samples are generated using a log uniform distribution. True labels are concatenated with these samples to form T + S samples for each example. So, assume the shape of logits is [N x K], the shape for samples is [N x (T+S)]. For each sampled label, a probability is calculated, which corresponds to the Q(y|x) in [Jean et al., 2014](http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.2007). Logits are sampled according to the sampled labels. Then if remove_accidental_hits is True, if a sample[i, j] accidentally hits true labels, then the corresponding sampled_logits[i, j] is minus by 1e20 to make its softmax result close to zero. Then sampled logits are subtracted by logQ(y|x), these sampled logits and re-indexed labels are used to compute a softmax with cross entropy. Args: logits (Variable): The unscaled log probabilities, which is a 2-D tensor with shape [N x K]. N is the batch_size, and K is the class number. label (Variable): The ground truth which is a 2-D tensor. Label is a Tensor<int64> with shape [N x T], where T is the number of true labels per example. num_samples (int): The number for each example, num_samples should be less than the number of class. num_true(int): The number of target classes per training example. remove_accidental_hits (bool): A flag indicating whether to remove accidental hits when sampling. If True and if a sample[i, j] accidentally hits true labels, then the corresponding sampled_logits[i, j] is minus by 1e20 to make its softmax result close to zero. Default is True. use_customized_samples (bool): Whether to use custom samples and probabities to sample logits. customized_samples (Variable): User defined samples, which is a 2-D tensor with shape [N, T + S]. S is the num_samples, and T is the number of true labels per example. customized_probabilities (Variable): User defined probabilities of samples, a 2-D tensor which has the same shape with customized_samples. seed (int): The random seed for generating random number, which is used in the process of sampling. Default is 0. Returns: Variable: Return the cross entropy loss which is a 2-D tensor with shape [N x 1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[256], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[5], dtype='int64') fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=input, size=100) out = fluid.layers.sampled_softmax_with_cross_entropy( logits=fc, label=label, num_samples=25) """ helper = LayerHelper('sample_logits', **locals()) samples = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int64') probabilities = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=logits.dtype) sampled_logits \ = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) sampled_label = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int64') sampled_softlabel = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=logits.dtype) logits_dim = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) labels_dim = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=label.type) helper.append_op( type='sample_logits', inputs={ 'Logits': logits, 'Labels': label, 'CustomizedSamples': customized_samples, 'CustomizedProbabilities': customized_probabilities }, outputs={ 'Samples': samples, 'Probabilities': probabilities, 'SampledLabels': sampled_label, 'SampledLogits': sampled_logits, 'LogitsDim': logits_dim, 'LabelsDim': labels_dim }, attrs={ 'use_customized_samples': use_customized_samples, 'uniq': True, 'remove_accidental_hits': remove_accidental_hits, 'num_samples': num_samples, 'seed': seed }) loss = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) softmax = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=logits.dtype) helper.append_op( type='one_hot', inputs={'X': sampled_label}, attrs={'depth': num_samples + 1}, outputs={'Out': sampled_softlabel}) helper.append_op( type='softmax_with_cross_entropy', inputs={'Logits': sampled_logits, 'Label': sampled_softlabel}, outputs={'Softmax': softmax, 'Loss': loss}, attrs={ 'soft_label': True, 'ignore_index': False, 'numeric_stable_mode': False }) return loss / num_true
[docs]def smooth_l1(x, y, inside_weight=None, outside_weight=None, sigma=None): """ This layer computes the smooth L1 loss for Variable :attr:`x` and :attr:`y`. It takes the first dimension of :attr:`x` and :attr:`y` as batch size. For each instance, it computes the smooth L1 loss element by element first and then sums all the losses. So the shape of ouput Variable is [batch_size, 1]. Args: x (Variable): A tensor with rank at least 2. The input value of smooth L1 loss op with shape [batch_size, dim1, ..., dimN]. y (Variable): A tensor with rank at least 2. The target value of smooth L1 loss op with same shape as :attr:`x`. inside_weight (Variable|None): A tensor with rank at least 2. This input is optional and should have same shape with :attr:`x`. If provided, the result of (:attr:`x` - :attr:`y`) will be multiplied by this tensor element by element. outside_weight (Variable|None): A tensor with rank at least 2. This input is optional and should have same shape with :attr:`x`. If provided, the out smooth L1 loss will be multiplied by this tensor element by element. sigma (float|None): Hyper parameter of smooth L1 loss layer. A float scalar with default value 1.0. Returns: Variable: The output smooth L1 loss with shape [batch_size, 1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[128], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data( name='label', shape=[100], dtype='float32') fc = fluid.layers.fc(input=data, size=100) out = fluid.layers.smooth_l1(x=fc, y=label) """ helper = LayerHelper('smooth_l1_loss', **locals()) diff = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) loss = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='smooth_l1_loss', inputs={ 'X': x, 'Y': y, 'InsideWeight': inside_weight, 'OutsideWeight': outside_weight }, outputs={'Diff': diff, 'Out': loss}, attrs={'sigma': sigma if sigma is not None else 1.0}) return loss
[docs]def one_hot(input, depth): """ This layer creates the one-hot representations for input indices. Args: input(Variable): Input indices, last dimension must be 1. depth(scalar): An interger defining the depth of the one-hot dimension. Returns: Variable: The one-hot representations of input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid label = fluid.layers.data(name="label", shape=[1], dtype="int64") one_hot_label = fluid.layers.one_hot(input=label, depth=10) """ helper = LayerHelper("one_hot", **locals()) one_hot_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='float32') if in_dygraph_mode(): inputs = {'X': input} attrs = {'depth': depth} else: if not isinstance(depth, Variable): # user attribute inputs = {'X': input} attrs = {'depth': depth} else: depth.stop_gradient = True inputs = {'X': input, 'depth_tensor': depth} attrs = {} helper.append_op( type="one_hot", inputs=inputs, attrs=attrs, outputs={'Out': one_hot_out}, stop_gradient=True) return one_hot_out
[docs]def autoincreased_step_counter(counter_name=None, begin=1, step=1): """ Create an auto-increase variable which will be automatically increased by 1 every mini-batch Return the run counter of the main program, default is started from 1. Args: counter_name(str): The counter name, default is '@STEP_COUNTER@'. begin(int): The first value of this counter. step(int): The increment step between each execution. Returns: Variable: The global run counter. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid global_step = fluid.layers.autoincreased_step_counter( counter_name='@LR_DECAY_COUNTER@', begin=0, step=1) """ helper = LayerHelper('global_step_counter') if counter_name is None: counter_name = '@STEP_COUNTER@' counter, is_new_var = helper.create_or_get_global_variable( name=counter_name, dtype='int64', shape=[1], persistable=True) if is_new_var: helper.set_variable_initializer( counter, initializer=Constant( value=begin - 1, force_cpu=True)) helper.main_program.global_block()._prepend_op( type='increment', inputs={'X': [counter]}, outputs={'Out': [counter]}, attrs={'step': float(step)}, stop_gradient=True) counter.stop_gradient = True return counter
[docs]def reshape(x, shape, actual_shape=None, act=None, inplace=False, name=None): """ Gives a new shape to the input Tensor without changing its data. The target shape can be given by :attr:`shape` or :attr:`actual_shape`. :attr:`shape` is a list of integer while :attr:`actual_shape` is a tensor variable. :attr:`actual_shape` has a higher priority than :attr:`shape` if it is provided, while :attr:`shape` still should be set correctly to gurantee shape inference in compile-time. Some tricks exist when specifying the target shape. 1. -1 means the value of this dimension is inferred from the total element number of x and remaining dimensions. Thus one and only one dimension can be set -1. 2. 0 means the actual dimension value is going to be copied from the corresponding dimension of x. The indice of 0s in shape can not exceed Rank(X). Here are some examples to explain it. 1. Given a 3-D tensor x with a shape [2, 4, 6], and the target shape is [6, 8], the reshape operator will transform x into a 2-D tensor with shape [6, 8] and leaving x's data unchanged. 2. Given a 3-D tensor x with a shape [2, 4, 6], and the target shape specified is [2, 3, -1, 2], the reshape operator will transform x into a 4-D tensor with shape [2, 3, 4, 2] and leaving x's data unchanged. In this case, one dimension of the target shape is set to -1, the value of this dimension is inferred from the total element number of x and remaining dimensions. 3. Given a 3-D tensor x with a shape [2, 4, 6], and the target shape is [-1, 0, 3, 2], the reshape operator will transform x into a 4-D tensor with shape [2, 4, 3, 2] and leaving x's data unchanged. In this case, besides -1, 0 means the actual dimension value is going to be copied from the corresponding dimension of x. Args: x(variable): The input tensor. shape(list): The new shape. At most one dimension of the new shape can be -1. actual_shape(variable): An optional input. If provided, reshape according to this given shape rather than :attr:`shape` specifying shape. That is to say :attr:`actual_shape` has a higher priority than :attr:`shape`. act (str): The non-linear activation to be applied to the reshaped tensor variable. inplace(bool): If ``inplace`` is `True`, the input and output of ``layers.reshape`` are the same variable, otherwise, the input and output of ``layers.reshape`` are different variables. Note that if :attr:`x` is more than one layer's input, ``inplace`` must be :attr:`False`. name (str): The name of this layer. It is optional. Returns: Variable: The reshaped tensor variable if :attr:`act` is None. It is a \ new tensor variable if :attr:`inplace` is :attr:`False`, \ otherwise it is :attr:`x`. If :attr:`act` is not None, return \ the activated tensor variable. Raises: TypeError: if actual_shape is neither Variable nor None. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[2, 4, 6], dtype='float32') reshaped = fluid.layers.reshape( x=data, shape=[-1, 0, 3, 2], inplace=True) """ if not (isinstance(shape, list) or isinstance(shape, tuple)): raise ValueError("Input shape must be a python list or tuple.") inputs = {"X": x} if isinstance(actual_shape, Variable): inputs["Shape"] = actual_shape elif actual_shape is not None: raise TypeError("actual_shape should either be Variable or None") # Validate the shape unk_dim_idx = -1 contain_var = False for dim_idx, dim_size in enumerate(shape): if isinstance(dim_size, Variable): contain_var = True continue if dim_size == -1: assert unk_dim_idx == -1, ( "Only one dimension in shape can be unknown.") unk_dim_idx = dim_idx elif dim_size == 0: assert dim_idx < len(x.shape), ( "The indice of 0s in shape can not exceed Rank(X).") else: assert dim_size > 0, ( "Each dimension size given in shape must not be negtive " "except one unknown dimension.") helper = LayerHelper("reshape2", **locals()) if in_dygraph_mode(): inputs = {'X': x} attrs = {'shape': shape} else: if contain_var: new_shape_tensor = [] for dim in shape: if isinstance(dim, Variable): dim.stop_gradient = True new_shape_tensor.append(dim) else: assert (isinstance(dim, int)) temp_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( 'int32') fill_constant( [1], 'int32', dim, force_cpu=True, out=temp_out) new_shape_tensor.append(temp_out) inputs['ShapeTensor'] = new_shape_tensor attrs = {} else: attrs = {'shape': shape} out = x if inplace else helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=x.dtype) x_shape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type="reshape2", inputs=inputs, attrs=attrs, outputs={"Out": out, "XShape": x_shape}) return helper.append_activation(out)
[docs]def squeeze(input, axes, name=None): """ Remove single-dimensional entries from the shape of a tensor. Takes a parameter axes with a list of axes to squeeze. If axes is not provided, all the single dimensions will be removed from the shape. If an axis is selected with shape entry not equal to one, an error is raised. For example: .. code-block:: text Case 1: Given X.shape = (1, 3, 1, 5) and axes = [0] we get: Out.shape = (3, 1, 5) Case 2: Given X.shape = (1, 3, 1, 5) and axes = [] we get: Out.shape = (3, 5) Args: input (Variable): The input variable to be squeezed. axes (list): List of integers, indicating the dimensions to be squeezed. name (str|None): Name for this layer. Returns: Variable: Output squeezed variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers x = layers.data(name='x', shape=[5, 1, 10]) y = layers.squeeze(input=x, axes=[1]) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "squeeze layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper("squeeze", **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) x_shape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type="squeeze2", inputs={"X": input}, attrs={"axes": axes}, outputs={"Out": out, "XShape": x_shape}) return out
[docs]def unsqueeze(input, axes, name=None): """ Insert single-dimensional entries to the shape of a tensor. Takes one required argument axes, a list of dimensions that will be inserted. Dimension indices in axes are as seen in the output tensor. For example: .. code-block:: text Given a tensor such that tensor with shape [3, 4, 5], then Unsqueezed tensor with axes=[0, 4] has shape [1, 3, 4, 5, 1]. Args: input (Variable): The input variable to be unsqueezed. axes (list): List of integers, indicating the dimensions to be inserted. name (str|None): Name for this layer. Returns: Variable: Output unsqueezed variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[5, 10]) y = fluid.layers.unsqueeze(input=x, axes=[1]) """ helper = LayerHelper("unsqueeze", **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) x_shape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=input.dtype) helper.append_op( type="unsqueeze2", inputs={"X": input}, attrs={"axes": axes}, outputs={"Out": out, "XShape": x_shape}) return out
[docs]def lod_reset(x, y=None, target_lod=None): """ Set LoD of :attr:`x` to a new one specified by :attr:`y` or :attr:`target_lod`. When :attr:`y` provided, :attr:`y.lod` would be considered as target LoD first, otherwise :attr:`y.data` would be considered as target LoD. If :attr:`y` is not provided, target LoD should be specified by :attr:`target_lod`. If target LoD is specified by :attr:`Y.data` or :attr:`target_lod`, only one level LoD is supported. .. code-block:: text * Example 1: Given a 1-level LoDTensor x: x.lod = [[ 2, 3, 1 ]] x.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] x.dims = [6, 1] target_lod: [4, 2] then we get a 1-level LoDTensor: out.lod = [[4, 2]] out.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] out.dims = [6, 1] * Example 2: Given a 1-level LoDTensor x: x.lod = [[2, 3, 1]] x.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] x.dims = [6, 1] y is a Tensor: y.data = [[2, 4]] y.dims = [1, 3] then we get a 1-level LoDTensor: out.lod = [[2, 4]] out.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] out.dims = [6, 1] * Example 3: Given a 1-level LoDTensor x: x.lod = [[2, 3, 1]] x.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] x.dims = [6, 1] y is a 2-level LoDTensor: y.lod = [[2, 2], [2, 2, 1, 1]] y.data = [[1.1], [2.1], [3.1], [4.1], [5.1], [6.1]] y.dims = [6, 1] then we get a 2-level LoDTensor: out.lod = [[2, 2], [2, 2, 1, 1]] out.data = [[1.0], [2.0], [3.0], [4.0], [5.0], [6.0]] out.dims = [6, 1] Args: x (Variable): Input variable which could be a Tensor or LodTensor. y (Variable|None): If provided, output's LoD would be derived from :attr:`y`. target_lod (list|tuple|None): One level LoD which should be considered as target LoD when :attr:`y` not provided. Returns: Variable: Output variable with LoD specified by this layer. Raises: ValueError: If :attr:`y` and :attr:`target_lod` are both None. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10]) y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[10, 20], lod_level=2) out = fluid.layers.lod_reset(x=x, y=y) """ helper = LayerHelper("lod_reset", **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) if y is not None: helper.append_op( type="lod_reset", inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': out}) elif target_lod is not None: helper.append_op( type="lod_reset", inputs={'X': x}, attrs={'target_lod': target_lod}, outputs={'Out': out}) else: raise ValueError("y and target_lod should not be both None.") return out
[docs]def lrn(input, n=5, k=1.0, alpha=1e-4, beta=0.75, name=None): """ Local Response Normalization Layer. This layer performs a type of "lateral inhibition" by normalizing over local input regions. The formula is as follows: .. math:: Output(i, x, y) = Input(i, x, y) / \\left(k + \\alpha \\sum\\limits^{\\min(C-1, i + n/2)}_{j = \\max(0, i - n/2)}(Input(j, x, y))^2\\right)^{\\beta} In the above equation: * :math:`n`: The number of channels to sum over. * :math:`k`: The offset (avoid being divided by 0). * :math:`alpha`: The scaling parameter. * :math:`beta`: The exponent parameter. Refer to `ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks <https://papers.nips.cc/paper/4824-imagenet-classification-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks.pdf>`_ Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of this layer, and the dimension of input tensor must be 4. n (int, default 5): The number of channels to sum over. k (float, default 1.0): An offset (usually positive to avoid dividing by 0). alpha (float, default 1e-4): The scaling parameter. beta (float, default 0.75): The exponent. name (str, default None): A name for this operation. Raises: ValueError: If rank of the input tensor is not 4. Returns: A tensor variable storing the transformation result. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data( name="data", shape=[3, 112, 112], dtype="float32") lrn = fluid.layers.lrn(input=data) """ helper = LayerHelper('lrn', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() input_shape = input.shape dims = len(input_shape) if dims != 4: raise ValueError( "dims of input must be 4(not %d), and it's order must be NCHW" % (dims)) mid_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=dtype, stop_gradient=True) lrn_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="lrn", inputs={"X": input}, outputs={ "Out": lrn_out, "MidOut": mid_out, }, attrs={"n": n, "k": k, "alpha": alpha, "beta": beta}) return lrn_out
[docs]def pad(x, paddings, pad_value=0., name=None): """ Pads a tensor with a constant value given by :attr:`pad_value`, and the padded width is specified by :attr:`paddings`. Specifically, the number of values padded before the contents of :attr:`x` in dimension :attr:`i` is indicated by :attr:`paddings[i]`, and the number of values padded after the contents of :attr:`x` in dimension :attr:`i` is indicated by :attr:`paddings[i+1]`. See below for an example. .. code-block:: text Given: x = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] paddings = [0, 1, 1, 2] pad_value = 0 Return: out = [[0, 1, 2, 0, 0] [0, 3, 4, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]] Args: x (Variable): The input tensor variable. paddings (list): A list of integers. Its elements specify the padded width before and after for each dimension in turn. The length of :attr:paddings must be :math:`rank(x) \\times 2`. pad_value (float): The constant value used to pad. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The padded tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python # x is a rank 2 tensor variable. import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[224], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.pad( x=x, paddings=[0, 1, 1, 2], pad_value=0.) """ helper = LayerHelper('pad', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='pad', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'paddings': paddings, 'pad_value': float(pad_value)}) return out
[docs]def pad_constant_like(x, y, pad_value=0., name=None): """ Pad input(Y) with :attr:`pad_value`, the number of values padded to the edges of each axis is specified by the difference of the shape of X and Y. ((0, shape_x_0 - shape_y_0), ... (0, shape_x_n - shape_y_n)) unique pad widths for each axis. The input should be a k-D tensor(k > 0 and k < 7). See below for an example. .. code-block:: text Given: X = [[[[ 0, 1, 2], [ 3, 4, 5]], [[ 6, 7, 8], [ 9, 10, 11]], [[12, 13, 14], [15, 16, 17]]], [[[18, 19, 20], [21, 22, 23]], [[24, 25, 26], [27, 28, 29]], [[30, 31, 32], [33, 34, 35]]]] X.shape = (2, 3, 2, 3) Y = [[[[35, 36, 37]], [[38, 39, 40]], [[41, 42, 43]]]] Y.shape = (1, 3, 1, 3) And pad_value = -1, Return: Out = [[[[35, 36, 37], [-1, -1, -1]], [[38, 39, 40], [-1, -1, -1]], [[41, 42, 43], [-1, -1, -1]]], [[[-1, -1, -1], [-1, -1, -1]], [[-1, -1, -1], [-1, -1, -1]], [[-1, -1, -1], [-1, -1, -1]]]] Out.shape = (2, 3, 2, 3) Args: x (Variable): The input tensor variable. y (Variable): The input tensor variable. pad_value (float): The constant value used to pad. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The padded tensor variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python # x is a rank 4 tensor variable, x.shape = (2, 3, 2, 3) # y is a rank 4 tensor variable, y.shape = (1, 3, 1, 3) import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[2,3,2,3], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.data(name='y', shape=[1,3,1,3], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.pad_constant_like(x=x, y=y, pad_value=0.) # out is a rank 4 tensor variable, and out.shape = [2, 3 ,2 , 3] """ helper = LayerHelper('pad_constant_like', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='pad_constant_like', inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'pad_value': float(pad_value)}) return out
[docs]def label_smooth(label, prior_dist=None, epsilon=0.1, dtype="float32", name=None): """ Label smoothing is a mechanism to regularize the classifier layer and is called label-smoothing regularization (LSR). Label smoothing is proposed to encourage the model to be less confident, since optimizing the log-likelihood of the correct label directly may cause overfitting and reduce the ability of the model to adapt. Label smoothing replaces the ground-truth label :math:`y` with the weighted sum of itself and some fixed distribution :math:`\mu`. For class :math:`k`, i.e. .. math:: \\tilde{y_k} = (1 - \epsilon) * y_k + \epsilon * \mu_k, where :math:`1 - \epsilon` and :math:`\epsilon` are the weights respectively, and :math:`\\tilde{y}_k` is the smoothed label. Usually uniform distribution is used for :math:`\mu`. See more details about label smoothing in https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.00567. Args: label(Variable): The input variable containing the label data. The label data should use one-hot representation. prior_dist(Variable): The prior distribution to be used to smooth labels. If not provided, an uniform distribution is used. The shape of :attr:`prior_dist` should be :math:`(1, class\_num)`. epsilon(float): The weight used to mix up the original ground-truth distribution and the fixed distribution. dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): The type of data : float32, float_64, int etc. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable containing the smoothed labels. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers label = layers.data(name="label", shape=[1], dtype="float32") one_hot_label = layers.one_hot(input=label, depth=10) smooth_label = layers.label_smooth( label=one_hot_label, epsilon=0.1, dtype="float32") """ if epsilon > 1. or epsilon < 0.: raise ValueError("The value of epsilon must be between 0 and 1.") helper = LayerHelper("label_smooth", **locals()) label.stop_gradient = True smooth_label = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="label_smooth", inputs={"X": label, "PriorDist": prior_dist} if prior_dist else {"X": label}, outputs={"Out": smooth_label}, attrs={"epsilon": float(epsilon)}) return smooth_label
@templatedoc()
[docs]def roi_pool(input, rois, pooled_height=1, pooled_width=1, spatial_scale=1.0): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): ${x_comment} rois (Variable): ROIs (Regions of Interest) to pool over. pooled_height (integer): ${pooled_height_comment} Default: 1 pooled_width (integer): ${pooled_width_comment} Default: 1 spatial_scale (float): ${spatial_scale_comment} Default: 1.0 Returns: Variable: ${out_comment}. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data( name='x', shape=[8, 112, 112], dtype='float32') rois = fluid.layers.data( name='roi', shape=[4], lod_level=1, dtype='float32') pool_out = fluid.layers.roi_pool( input=x, rois=rois, pooled_height=7, pooled_width=7, spatial_scale=1.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('roi_pool', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() pool_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) argmaxes = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int32') helper.append_op( type="roi_pool", inputs={"X": input, "ROIs": rois}, outputs={"Out": pool_out, "Argmax": argmaxes}, attrs={ "pooled_height": pooled_height, "pooled_width": pooled_width, "spatial_scale": spatial_scale }) return pool_out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def roi_align(input, rois, pooled_height=1, pooled_width=1, spatial_scale=1.0, sampling_ratio=-1, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): ${x_comment} rois (Variable): ROIs (Regions of Interest) to pool over. pooled_height (integer): ${pooled_height_comment} Default: 1 pooled_width (integer): ${pooled_width_comment} Default: 1 spatial_scale (float): ${spatial_scale_comment} Default: 1.0 sampling_ratio(intger): ${sampling_ratio_comment} Default: -1 Returns: Variable: ${out_comment}. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[256, 32, 32], dtype='float32') rois = fluid.layers.data( name='rois', shape=[4], dtype='float32') align_out = fluid.layers.roi_align(input=x, rois=rois, pooled_height=7, pooled_width=7, spatial_scale=0.5, sampling_ratio=-1) """ helper = LayerHelper('roi_align', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() align_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="roi_align", inputs={"X": input, "ROIs": rois}, outputs={"Out": align_out}, attrs={ "pooled_height": pooled_height, "pooled_width": pooled_width, "spatial_scale": spatial_scale, "sampling_ratio": sampling_ratio }) return align_out
[docs]def dice_loss(input, label, epsilon=0.00001): """ Dice loss for comparing the similarity of two batch of data, usually is used for binary image segmentation i.e. labels are binary. The dice loss can be defined as below equation: .. math:: dice\_loss &= 1 - \\frac{2 * intersection\_area}{total\_area} \\\\ &= \\frac{(total\_area - intersection\_area) - intersection\_area}{total\_area} \\\\ &= \\frac{(union\_area - intersection\_area)}{total\_area} Args: input (Variable): The predictions with rank>=2. The first dimension is batch size, and the last dimension is class number. label (Variable): The groud truth with the same rank with input. The first dimension is batch size, and the last dimension is 1. epsilon (float): The epsilon will be added to the numerator and denominator. If both input and label are empty, it makes sure dice is 1. Default: 0.00001 Returns: dice_loss (Variable): The dice loss with shape [1]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape = [3, 224, 224, 2], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[3, 224, 224, 1], dtype='float32') predictions = fluid.layers.softmax(x) loss = fluid.layers.dice_loss(input=predictions, label=label) """ label = one_hot(label, depth=input.shape[-1]) reduce_dim = list(range(1, len(input.shape))) inse = reduce_sum(input * label, dim=reduce_dim) dice_denominator = reduce_sum( input, dim=reduce_dim) + reduce_sum( label, dim=reduce_dim) dice_score = 1 - inse * 2 / (dice_denominator + epsilon) return reduce_mean(dice_score)
[docs]def image_resize(input, out_shape=None, scale=None, name=None, resample='BILINEAR', actual_shape=None, align_corners=True, align_mode=1): """ **Resize a Batch of Images** The input must be a tensor of the shape (num_batches, channels, in_h, in_w), and the resizing only applies on the last two dimensions(hight and width). Supporting resample methods: 'BILINEAR' : Bilinear interpolation 'NEAREST' : Nearest neighbor interpolation Nearest neighbor interpolation is to perform nearest neighbor interpolation in both the 3rd dimention(in height direction) and the 4th dimention(in width direction) on input tensor. Bilinear interpolation is an extension of linear interpolation for interpolating functions of two variables (e.g. H-direction and W-direction in this op) on a rectilinear 2D grid. The key idea is to perform linear interpolation first in one direction, and then again in the other direction. Align_corners and align_mode are optinal parameters,the calculation method of interpolation can be selected by them. Example: .. code-block:: text For scale: if align_corners = True && out_size > 1 : scale_factor = (in_size-1.0)/(out_size-1.0) else: scale_factor = float(in_size/out_size) Nearest neighbor interpolation: if: align_corners = False input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = floor (H_{in} * scale_{factor}) W_out = floor (W_{in} * scale_{factor}) else: align_corners = True input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = round(H_{in} * scale_{factor}) W_out = round(W_{in} * scale_{factor}) Bilinear interpolation: if: align_corners = False , align_mode = 0 input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = (H_{in}+0.5) * scale_{factor} - 0.5 W_out = (W_{in}+0.5) * scale_{factor} - 0.5 else: input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = H_{in} * scale_{factor} W_out = W_{in} * scale_{factor} For details of nearest neighbor interpolation, please refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nearest-neighbor_interpolation. For details of bilinear interpolation, please refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilinear_interpolation. Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of image resize layer, This is a 4-D tensor of the shape (num_batches, channels, in_h, in_w). out_shape(list|tuple|Variable|None): Output shape of image resize layer, the shape is (out_h, out_w). Default: None scale(float|None): The multiplier for the input height or width. At least one of :attr:`out_shape` or :attr:`scale` must be set. And :attr:`out_shape` has a higher priority than :attr:`scale`. Default: None. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. resample(str): The resample method. It supports 'BILINEAR' and 'NEAREST' currently. Default: 'BILINEAR' actual_shape(Variable): An optional input to specify output shape dynamically. If provided, image resize according to this given shape rather than :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` specifying shape. That is to say actual_shape has the highest priority. It is recommended to use actual_shape instead of :attr:`out_shape` if you want to specify output shape dynamically. When using actual_shape to specify output shape, one of :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` should also be set, otherwise errors would be occured in graph constructing stage. Default: None align_corners(bool) : An optional bool, If True, the centers of the 4 corner pixels of the input and output tensors are aligned, preserving the values at the corner pixels. Default: True align_mode(int) : An optional for bilinear interpolation. can be \'0\' for src_idx = scale*(dst_indx+0.5)-0.5 , can be \'1\' for src_idx = scale*dst_index . Returns: Variable: The output is a 4-D tensor of the shape (num_batches, channls, out_h, out_w). Raises: TypeError: out_shape should be a list or tuple or Variable. TypeError: actual_shape should either be Variable or None. ValueError: The 'resample' of image_resize can only be 'BILINEAR' or 'NEAREST' currently. ValueError: One of out_shape and scale must not be None. ValueError: out_shape length should be 2. ValueError: scale should be greater than zero. TypeError: align_corners shoule be a bool value ValueError: align_mode can only be '0' or '1' Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name="input", shape=[3,6,9], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.image_resize(input, out_shape=[12, 12], resample="NEAREST") """ resample_methods = { 'BILINEAR': 'bilinear', 'NEAREST': 'nearest', } if resample not in resample_methods: raise ValueError( "The 'resample' of image_resize can only be 'BILINEAR' or 'NEAREST' currently." ) resample_type = resample_methods[resample] if not isinstance(align_corners, bool): raise TypeError("Attr align_corners should be a bool value") if align_mode != 0 and align_mode != 1: raise ValueError("align_mode can only be 0 or 1") if out_shape is None and scale is None: raise ValueError("One of out_shape and scale must not be None.") helper = LayerHelper('{}_interp'.format(resample_type), **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() def _is_list_or_turple_(data): return (isinstance(data, list) or isinstance(data, tuple)) inputs = {"X": input} attrs = { "out_h": 0, "out_w": 0, "interp_method": resample_type, "align_corners": align_corners, "align_mode": align_mode } if out_shape is not None: if isinstance(out_shape, Variable): warnings.warn("out_shape as Variable type is deprecated, \ it is recommended to use actual_shape instead of \ out_shape to specify output shape dynamically.") inputs['OutSize'] = out_shape else: if not (_is_list_or_turple_(out_shape)): raise TypeError( "out_shape should be a list or tuple or Variable.") if len(out_shape) != 2: raise ValueError("out_shape length should be 2.") out_shape = list(map(int, out_shape)) attrs['out_h'] = out_shape[0] attrs['out_w'] = out_shape[1] else: if scale <= 0: raise ValueError("scale should be greater than zero.") attrs['scale'] = float(scale) if isinstance(actual_shape, Variable): inputs["OutSize"] = actual_shape elif actual_shape is not None: raise TypeError("actual_shape should either be Variable or None.") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='{}_interp'.format(resample_type), inputs=inputs, outputs={"Out": out}, attrs=attrs) return out
@templatedoc(op_type="bilinear_interp")
[docs]def resize_bilinear(input, out_shape=None, scale=None, name=None, actual_shape=None, align_corners=True, align_mode=1): """ Resize input by performing bilinear interpolation based on given output shape which specified by actual_shape, out_shape and scale in priority order. Bilinear interpolation is an extension of linear interpolation for interpolating functions of two variables (e.g. H-direction and W-direction in this op) on a rectilinear 2D grid. The key idea is to perform linear interpolation first in one direction, and then again in the other direction. For details of bilinear interpolation, please refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilinear_interpolation Align_corners and align_mode are optinal parameters,the calculation method of interpolation can be selected by them. Example: .. code-block:: text For scale: if align_corners = True && out_size > 1 : scale_factor = (in_size-1.0)/(out_size-1.0) else: scale_factor = float(in_size/out_size) Bilinear interpolation: if: align_corners = False , align_mode = 0 input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = (H_{in}+0.5) * scale_{factor} - 0.5 W_out = (W_{in}+0.5) * scale_{factor} - 0.5 else: input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = H_{in} * scale_{factor} W_out = W_{in} * scale_{factor} Args: input(${x_type}): ${x_comment}. out_shape(list|tuple|Variable|None): Output shape of resize bilinear layer, the shape is (out_h, out_w). Default: None scale(float|None): The multiplier for the input height or width. At least one of :attr:`out_shape` or :attr:`scale` must be set. And :attr:`out_shape` has a higher priority than :attr:`scale`. Default: None. name(str|None): The output variable name. actual_shape(Variable): An optional input to specify output shape dynamically. If provided, image resize according to this given shape rather than :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` specifying shape. That is to say actual_shape has the highest priority. It is recommended to use actual_shape instead of :attr:`out_shape` if you want to specify output shape dynamically. When using actual_shape to specify output shape, one of :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` should also be set, otherwise errors would be occured in graph constructing stage. Default: None align_corners(bool): ${align_corners_comment} align_mode(bool): ${align_mode_comment} Returns: ${out_comment}. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name="input", shape=[3,6,9], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.resize_bilinear(input, out_shape=[12, 12]) """ return image_resize(input, out_shape, scale, name, 'BILINEAR', actual_shape, align_corners, align_mode)
@templatedoc(op_type="nearest_interp")
[docs]def resize_nearest(input, out_shape=None, scale=None, name=None, actual_shape=None, align_corners=True): """ Resize input by performing nearest neighbor interpolation in both the 3rd dimension(in height direction) and the 4th dimension(in width direction) based on given output shape which is specified by actual_shape, out_shape and scale in priority order. Example: .. code-block:: text For scale: if align_corners = True && out_size > 1 : scale_factor = (in_size-1.0)/(out_size-1.0) else: scale_factor = float(in_size/out_size) Nearest neighbor interpolation: if: align_corners = False input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = floor(H_{in} * scale_{factor}) W_out = floor(W_{in} * scale_{factor}) else: align_corners = True input : (N,C,H_in,W_in) output: (N,C,H_out,W_out) where: H_out = round(H_{in} * scale_{factor}) W_out = round(W_{in} * scale_{factor}) For details of nearest neighbor interpolation, please refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nearest-neighbor_interpolation Args: input(${x_type}): ${x_comment}. out_shape(list|tuple|Variable|None): Output shape of resize nearest layer, the shape is (out_h, out_w). Default: None scale(float|None): The multiplier for the input height or width. At least one of :attr:`out_shape` or :attr:`scale` must be set. And :attr:`out_shape` has a higher priority than :attr:`scale`. Default: None. name(str|None): The output variable name. actual_shape(Variable): An optional input to specify output shape dynamically. If provided, image resize according to this given shape rather than :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` specifying shape. That is to say actual_shape has the highest priority. It is recommended to use actual_shape instead of :attr:`out_shape` if you want to specify output shape dynamically. When using actual_shape to specify output shape, one of :attr:`out_shape` and :attr:`scale` should also be set, otherwise errors would be occured in graph constructing stage. Default: None align_corners(bool): ${align_corners_comment} Returns: ${out_comment}. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name="input", shape=[3,6,9], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.resize_nearest(input, out_shape=[12, 12]) """ return image_resize(input, out_shape, scale, name, 'NEAREST', actual_shape, align_corners)
[docs]def image_resize_short(input, out_short_len, resample='BILINEAR'): """ Resize a batch of images. The short edge of input images will be resized to the given 'out_short_len'. The long edge of input images will be resized proportionately to make images' length-width ratio constant. Args: input (Variable): The input tensor of image resize layer, This is a 4-D tensor of the shape (num_batches, channels, in_h, in_w). out_short_len(int): The length of output images' short edge. resample (str): resample method, default: BILINEAR. Returns: Variable: The output is a 4-D tensor of the shape (num_batches, channls, out_h, out_w). Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name="input", shape=[3,6,9], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.image_resize_short(input, out_short_len=3) """ in_shape = input.shape if len(in_shape) != 4: raise ValueError( "The rank of input must be 4 (num_batches, channels, in_h, in_w).") hw = in_shape[2:4] short_idx = hw.index(min(hw)) long_idx = 1 - short_idx out_shape = list(hw) out_shape[short_idx] = out_short_len out_shape[long_idx] = int( float(out_shape[long_idx]) * (float(out_short_len) / float(hw[ short_idx])) + 0.5) return image_resize(input=input, out_shape=out_shape, resample=resample)
[docs]def gather(input, index, overwrite=True): """ **Gather Layer** Output is obtained by gathering entries of the outer-most dimension of X indexed by `index` and concatenate them together. .. math:: Out = X[Index] .. code-block:: text Given: X = [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]] Index = [1, 2] Then: Out = [[3, 4], [5, 6]] Args: input (Variable): The source input with rank>=1. index (Variable): The index input with rank=1. overwrite (bool): The mode that updating the grad when has same index. If True, use the overwrite mode to update the grad of the same index, if False, use the accumulate mode to update the grad of the same index. Default value is True. Returns: output (Variable): The output is a tensor with the same rank as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[-1, 5], dtype='float32') index = fluid.layers.data(name='index', shape=[-1, 1], dtype='int32') output = fluid.layers.gather(x, index) """ helper = LayerHelper('gather', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="gather", inputs={"X": input, "Index": index}, outputs={"Out": out}, attrs={'overwrite': overwrite}) return out
[docs]def scatter(input, index, updates, name=None, overwrite=True): """ **Scatter Layer** Output is obtained by updating the input on selected indices on the first axis. .. math:: Out = X Out[Ids] = Updates Args: input (Variable): The source input with rank>=1. index (Variable): The index input with rank=1. Its dtype should be int32 or int64 as it is used as indexes. updates (Variable): The updated value of scatter op. name (str|None): The output variable name. Default None. overwrite (bool): The mode that updating the output when has same index. If True, use the overwrite mode to update the output of the same index, if False, use the accumulate mode to update the output of the same index. Default value is True.You can set overwrite=False to implement scatter_add. Returns: output (Variable): The output is a tensor with the same shape as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 5, 9], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) index = fluid.layers.data(name='index', shape=[3], dtype='int64', append_batch_size=False) updates = fluid.layers.data(name='update', shape=[3, 5, 9], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) output = fluid.layers.scatter(input, index, updates) """ helper = LayerHelper('scatter', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="scatter", inputs={"X": input, "Ids": index, "Updates": updates}, attrs={'overwrite': overwrite}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
[docs]def sequence_scatter(input, index, updates, name=None): """ **Sequence Scatter Layer** This operator scatters the Updates tensor to the input X. It uses the LoD information of Ids to select the rows to update, and use the values in Ids as the columns to update in each row of X. Here is an example: Given the following input: .. code-block:: text input.data = [[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0]] input.dims = [3, 6] index.data = [[0], [1], [2], [5], [4], [3], [2], [1], [3], [2], [5], [4]] index.lod = [[0, 3, 8, 12]] updates.data = [[0.3], [0.3], [0.4], [0.1], [0.2], [0.3], [0.4], [0.0], [0.2], [0.3], [0.1], [0.4]] updates.lod = [[ 0, 3, 8, 12]] Then we have the output: .. code-block:: text out.data = [[1.3, 1.3, 1.4, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1], [1.0, 1.0, 1.3, 1.2, 1.4, 1.1]] out.dims = X.dims = [3, 6] Args: input (Variable): The source input with rank>=1. index (Variable): A LoD Tensor. The index input of sequence scatter op where input will be updated. The index input with rank=1. Its dtype should be int32 or int64 as it is used as indexes. updates (Variable): A LoD Tensor. The values to scatter to the input tensor X, must be a LoDTensor with the same LoD information as index. name (str|None): The output variable name. Default None. Returns: Variable: The output is a tensor with the same shape as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers input = layers.data( name="x", shape=[3, 6], append_batch_size=False, dtype='float32' ) index = layers.data( name='index', shape=[1], dtype='int32') updates = layers.data( name='updates', shape=[1], dtype='float32') output = fluid.layers.sequence_scatter(input, index, updates) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_scatter', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="sequence_scatter", inputs={"X": input, "Ids": index, "Updates": updates}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def random_crop(x, shape, seed=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} shape(${shape_type}): ${shape_comment} seed(int|${seed_type}|None): ${seed_comment} By default, the seed will get from `random.randint(-65536, 65535)`. Returns: ${out_comment} Examples: >>> import paddle.fluid as fluid >>> img = fluid.layers.data("img", [3, 256, 256]) >>> cropped_img = fluid.layers.random_crop(img, shape=[3, 224, 224]) """ helper = LayerHelper("random_crop", **locals()) dtype = x.dtype out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) if seed is None: seed = np.random.randint(-65536, 65536) op_attrs = {"shape": shape} if isinstance(seed, int): op_attrs["startup_seed"] = seed seed = helper.create_variable( name=unique_name.generate("random_crop_seed"), dtype="int64", persistable=True) elif not isinstance(seed, Variable): raise ValueError("'seed' must be a Variable or an int.") helper.append_op( type="random_crop", inputs={"X": x, "Seed": seed}, outputs={"Out": out, "SeedOut": seed}, attrs=op_attrs) return out
[docs]def log(x, name=None): """ Calculates the natural log of the given input tensor, element-wise. .. math:: Out = \\ln(x) Args: x (Variable): Input tensor. name (str|None, default None): A name for this layer If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The natural log of the input tensor computed element-wise. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3, 4], dtype="float32") output = fluid.layers.log(x) """ helper = LayerHelper('log', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='x') out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op(type="log", inputs={"X": x}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
[docs]def relu(x, name=None): """ Relu takes one input data (Tensor) and produces one output data (Tensor) where the rectified linear function, y = max(0, x), is applied to the tensor elementwise. .. math:: Out = \\max(0, x) Args: x (Variable): The input tensor. name (str|None, default None): A name for this layer If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output tensor with the same shape as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3, 4], dtype="float32") output = fluid.layers.relu(x) """ helper = LayerHelper('relu', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='x') out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="relu", inputs={"X": helper.input('x')}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def selu(x, scale=None, alpha=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x (Variable): The input tensor. scale(float, None): If the scale is not set, the default value is 1.0507009873554804934193349852946. For more information about this value, please refer to: https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02515. alpha(float, None): If the alpha is not set, the default value is 1.6732632423543772848170429916717. For more information about this value, please refer to: https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02515. name (str|None, default None): A name for this layer If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output tensor with the same shape as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name="input", shape=[3, 9, 5], dtype="float32") output = fluid.layers.selu(input) """ helper = LayerHelper('selu', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='x') out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) attrs = {} if scale is not None: attrs["scale"] = scale if alpha is not None: attrs["alpha"] = alpha helper.append_op( type="selu", inputs={"X": x}, outputs={"Out": out}, attrs=attrs) return out
[docs]def mean_iou(input, label, num_classes): """ Mean Intersection-Over-Union is a common evaluation metric for semantic image segmentation, which first computes the IOU for each semantic class and then computes the average over classes. IOU is defined as follows: .. math:: IOU = \\frac{true\_positive}{(true\_positive + false\_positive + false\_negative)}. The predictions are accumulated in a confusion matrix and mean-IOU is then calculated from it. Args: input (Variable): A Tensor of prediction results for semantic labels with type int32 or int64. label (Variable): A Tensor of ground truth labels with type int32 or int64. Its shape should be the same as input. num_classes (int): The possible number of labels. Returns: mean_iou (Variable),out_wrong(Variable),out_correct(Variable): Three variables: - mean_iou : A Tensor representing the mean intersection-over-union with shape [1]. - out_wrong: A Tensor with shape [num_classes]. The wrong numbers of each class. - out_correct: A Tensor with shape [num_classes]. The correct numbers of each class. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid predict = fluid.layers.data(name='predict', shape=[3, 32, 32]) label = fluid.layers.data(name='label', shape=[1]) iou, wrongs, corrects = fluid.layers.mean_iou(predict, label, num_classes=5) """ helper = LayerHelper('mean_iou', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype() out_mean_iou = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='float32') out_wrong = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int32') out_correct = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int32') helper.append_op( type="mean_iou", inputs={"Predictions": input, "Labels": label}, outputs={ "OutMeanIou": out_mean_iou, "OutWrong": out_wrong, "OutCorrect": out_correct }, attrs={"num_classes": num_classes}) return out_mean_iou, out_wrong, out_correct
[docs]def crop(x, shape=None, offsets=None, name=None): """ Crop input into output, as specified by offsets and shape. .. code-block:: text * Case 1: Given X = [[0, 1, 2, 0, 0] [0, 3, 4, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]], and shape = [2, 2], offsets = [0, 1], output is: Out = [[1, 2], [3, 4]]. * Case 2: Given X = [[0, 1, 2, 5, 0] [0, 3, 4, 6, 0] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]], and shape is tensor shape = [[0, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0]] and offsets = [0, 1], output is: Out = [[1, 2, 5], [3, 4, 6]]. Args: x (Variable): The input tensor variable. shape (Variable|list/tuple of integer): The output shape is specified by `shape`, which can a Variable or a list/tupe of integer. If a tensor Variable, it's rank must be the same as `x`. This way is suitable for the case that the output shape may be changed each iteration. If a list/tupe of integer, it's length must be the same as the rank of `x` offsets (Variable|list/tuple of integer|None): Specifies the cropping offsets at each dimension. It can be a Variable or or a list/tupe of integers. If a tensor Variable, it's rank must be the same as `x`. This way is suitable for the case that the offsets may be changed each iteration. If a list/tupe of integer, it's length must be the same as the rank of `x`. If None, the offsets are 0 at each dimension. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The cropped tensor variable. Raises: ValueError: If shape is not a list, tuple or Variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3, 5], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.data(name="y", shape=[2, 3], dtype="float32") crop = fluid.layers.crop(x, shape=y) # or z = fluid.layers.data(name="z", shape=[3, 5], dtype="float32") crop = fluid.layers.crop(z, shape=[-1, 2, 3]) """ helper = LayerHelper('crop', **locals()) if not (isinstance(shape, list) or isinstance(shape, tuple) or \ isinstance(shape, Variable)): raise ValueError("The shape should be a list, tuple or Variable.") if offsets is None: offsets = [0] * len(x.shape) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype) ipts = {'X': x} attrs = {} if isinstance(shape, Variable): ipts['Y'] = shape else: attrs['shape'] = shape if isinstance(offsets, Variable): ipts['Offsets'] = offsets else: attrs['offsets'] = offsets helper.append_op( type='crop', inputs=ipts, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs=None if len(attrs) == 0 else attrs) return out
[docs]def affine_grid(theta, out_shape, name=None): """ It generates a grid of (x,y) coordinates using the parameters of the affine transformation that correspond to a set of points where the input feature map should be sampled to produce the transformed output feature map. .. code-block:: text * Case 1: Given: theta = [[[x_11, x_12, x_13] [x_14, x_15, x_16]] [[x_21, x_22, x_23] [x_24, x_25, x_26]]] out_shape = [2, 3, 5, 5] Step 1: Generate normalized coordinates according to out_shape. The values of the normalized coordinates are in the interval between -1 and 1. The shape of the normalized coordinates is [2, H, W] as below: C = [[[-1. -1. -1. -1. -1. ] [-0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5] [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ] [ 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5] [ 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. ]] [[-1. -0.5 0. 0.5 1. ] [-1. -0.5 0. 0.5 1. ] [-1. -0.5 0. 0.5 1. ] [-1. -0.5 0. 0.5 1. ] [-1. -0.5 0. 0.5 1. ]]] C[0] is the coordinates in height axis and C[1] is the coordinates in width axis. Step2: Tanspose and reshape C to shape [H * W, 2] and append ones to last dimension. The we get: C_ = [[-1. -1. 1. ] [-0.5 -1. 1. ] [ 0. -1. 1. ] [ 0.5 -1. 1. ] [ 1. -1. 1. ] [-1. -0.5 1. ] [-0.5 -0.5 1. ] [ 0. -0.5 1. ] [ 0.5 -0.5 1. ] [ 1. -0.5 1. ] [-1. 0. 1. ] [-0.5 0. 1. ] [ 0. 0. 1. ] [ 0.5 0. 1. ] [ 1. 0. 1. ] [-1. 0.5 1. ] [-0.5 0.5 1. ] [ 0. 0.5 1. ] [ 0.5 0.5 1. ] [ 1. 0.5 1. ] [-1. 1. 1. ] [-0.5 1. 1. ] [ 0. 1. 1. ] [ 0.5 1. 1. ] [ 1. 1. 1. ]] Step3: Compute output by equation $$Output[i] = C_ * Theta[i]^T$$ Args: theta (Variable): A batch of affine transform parameters with shape [N, 2, 3]. out_shape (Variable | list | tuple): The shape of target output with format [N, C, H, W]. ``out_shape`` can be a Variable or a list or tuple. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output with shape [N, H, W, 2]. Raises: ValueError: If the type of arguments is not supported. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid theta = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[2, 3], dtype="float32") out_shape = fluid.layers.data(name="y", shape=[-1], dtype="float32") data = fluid.layers.affine_grid(theta, out_shape) # or data = fluid.layers.affine_grid(theta, [5, 3, 28, 28]) """ helper = LayerHelper('affine_grid') if not (isinstance(out_shape, list) or isinstance(out_shape, tuple) or \ isinstance(out_shape, Variable)): raise ValueError("The out_shape should be a list, tuple or Variable.") if not isinstance(theta, Variable): raise ValueError("The theta should be a Variable.") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(theta.dtype) ipts = {'Theta': theta} attrs = {} if isinstance(out_shape, Variable): ipts['OutputShape'] = out_shape else: attrs['output_shape'] = out_shape helper.append_op( type='affine_grid', inputs=ipts, outputs={'Output': out}, attrs=None if len(attrs) == 0 else attrs) return out
[docs]def rank_loss(label, left, right, name=None): """ **Rank loss layer for RankNet** `RankNet <http://icml.cc/2015/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/icml_ranking.pdf>`_ is a pairwise ranking model with a training sample consisting of a pair of documents, A and B. Label P indicates whether A is ranked higher than B or not: P = {0, 1} or {0, 0.5, 1}, where 0.5 means that there is no information about the rank of the input pair. Rank loss layer takes three inputs: left ( :math:`o_i` ), right ( :math:`o_j` ) and label ( :math:`P_{i,j}` ). The inputs respectively represent RankNet's output scores for documents A and B and the value of label P. The following equation computes rank loss C_{i,j} from the inputs: .. math:: C_{i,j} &= -\\tilde{P_{ij}} * o_{i,j} + \log(1 + e^{o_{i,j}}) \\\\ o_{i,j} &= o_i - o_j \\\\ \\tilde{P_{i,j}} &= \\left \{0, 0.5, 1 \\right \} \ or \ \\left \{0, 1 \\right \} Rank loss layer takes batch inputs with size batch_size (batch_size >= 1). Args: label (Variable): Indicats whether A ranked higher than B or not. left (Variable): RankNet's output score for doc A. right (Variable): RankNet's output score for doc B. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: list: The value of rank loss. Raises: ValueError: Any of label, left, and right is not a variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid label = fluid.layers.data(name="label", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") left = fluid.layers.data(name="left", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") right = fluid.layers.data(name="right", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.rank_loss(label, left, right) """ helper = LayerHelper('rank_loss', **locals()) if not (isinstance(label, Variable)): raise ValueError("The label should be a Variable") if not (isinstance(left, Variable)): raise ValueError("The left should be a Variable") if not (isinstance(right, Variable)): raise ValueError("The right should be a Variable") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference("float32") helper.append_op( type='rank_loss', inputs={"Label": label, "Left": left, "Right": right}, outputs={'Out': out}) return out
[docs]def margin_rank_loss(label, left, right, margin=0.1, name=None): """ Margin Ranking Loss Layer for ranking problem, which compares left score and right score passed in. The ranking loss can be defined as following equation: .. math:: rank\_loss = max(0, -label * (left - right) + margin) Args: label (Variable): Indicates whether the left is ranked higher than the right or not. left (Variable): Ranking score for left. right (Variable): Ranking score for right. margin (float): Indicates the given margin. name (str|None): A name for this layer (optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The ranking loss. Raises: ValueError: Any of label, left, and right is not a Variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid label = fluid.layers.data(name="label", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") left = fluid.layers.data(name="left", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") right = fluid.layers.data(name="right", shape=[-1, 1], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.margin_rank_loss(label, left, right) """ helper = LayerHelper('margin_rank_loss', **locals()) if not isinstance(label, Variable): raise ValueError("The label should be a Variable.") if not isinstance(left, Variable): raise ValueError("The left should be a Variable.") if not isinstance(right, Variable): raise ValueError("The right should be a Variable.") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(left.dtype) act = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(left.dtype) helper.append_op( type='margin_rank_loss', inputs={"Label": label, "X1": left, "X2": right}, outputs={'Out': out, 'Activated': act}, attrs={'margin': margin}) return out
[docs]def pad2d(input, paddings=[0, 0, 0, 0], mode='constant', pad_value=0.0, data_format="NCHW", name=None): """ Pad 2-d images accordding to 'paddings' and 'mode'. If mode is 'reflect', paddings[0] and paddings[1] must be no greater than height-1. And the width dimension has the same condition. Example: .. code-block:: text Given that X is a channel of image from input: X = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]] Case 0: paddings = [0, 1, 2, 3], mode = 'constant' pad_value = 0 Out = [[0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0] [0, 0, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]] Case 1: paddings = [0, 1, 2, 1], mode = 'reflect' Out = [[3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 2] [6, 5, 4, 5, 6, 5] [3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 2]] Case 2: paddings = [0, 1, 2, 1], mode = 'edge' Out = [[1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3] [4, 4, 4, 5, 6, 6] [4, 4, 4, 5, 6, 6]] Args: input (Variable): The input image with [N, C, H, W] format or [N, H, W, C] format. paddings (tuple|list|Variable): The padding size. If padding is a tuple, it must contain four integers, (padding_top, padding_bottom, padding_left, padding_right). Default: padding = [0, 0, 0, 0]. mode (str): Three modes: constant(default), reflect, edge. Default: constant pad_value (float32): The value to fill the padded areas in constant mode. Default: 0 data_format (str): An optional string from: "NHWC", "NCHW". Specify the data format of the input data. Default: "NCHW" name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The tensor variable padded accordding to paddings and mode. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid data = fluid.layers.data(name='data', shape=[3, 32, 32], dtype='float32') result = fluid.layers.pad2d(input=data, paddings=[1, 2, 3, 4], mode='reflect') """ helper = LayerHelper('pad2d', **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='input') out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) inputs = {'X': input} attrs = {'mode': mode, 'pad_value': pad_value, 'data_format': data_format} if isinstance(paddings, Variable): inputs['Paddings'] = paddings attrs['paddings'] = [] else: attrs['paddings'] = paddings helper.append_op( type='pad2d', inputs=inputs, outputs={"Out": out}, attrs=attrs) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def elu(x, alpha=1.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} alpha(${alpha_type}|1.0): ${alpha_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.elu(x, alpha=0.2) """ helper = LayerHelper('elu', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='elu', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'alpha': alpha}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def relu6(x, threshold=6.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} threshold(${threshold_type}|6.0): ${threshold_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.relu6(x, threshold=6.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('relu6', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='relu6', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'threshold': threshold}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def pow(x, factor=1.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} factor(${factor_type}|1.0): ${factor_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.pow(x, factor=2.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('pow', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='pow', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'factor': factor}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def stanh(x, scale_a=2.0 / 3.0, scale_b=1.7159, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} scale_a(${scale_a_type}|2.0 / 3.0): ${scale_a_comment} scale_b(${scale_b_type}|1.7159): ${scale_b_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.stanh(x, scale_a=0.67, scale_b=1.72) """ helper = LayerHelper('stanh', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='stanh', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'scale_a': scale_a, 'scale_b': scale_b}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def hard_sigmoid(x, slope=0.2, offset=0.5, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} slope(${slope_type}|0.2): ${slope_comment} offset(${offset_type}|0.5): ${offset_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.hard_sigmoid(x, slope=0.3, offset=0.8) """ helper = LayerHelper('hard_sigmoid', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='hard_sigmoid', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'slope': slope, 'offset': offset}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def swish(x, beta=1.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} beta(${beta_type}|1.0): ${beta_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,10,32,32], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.swish(x, beta=2.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('swish', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='swish', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'slope': beta}) return out
[docs]def prelu(x, mode, param_attr=None, name=None): """ Equation: .. math:: y = \max(0, x) + \\alpha * \min(0, x) There are three modes for the activation: .. code-block:: text all: All elements share same alpha. channel: Elements in same channel share same alpha. element: All elements do not share alpha. Each element has its own alpha. Args: x (Variable): The input tensor. mode (string): The mode for weight sharing. param_attr(ParamAttr|None): The parameter attribute for the learnable weight (alpha), it can be create by ParamAttr. name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output tensor with the same shape as input. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid from paddle.fluid.param_attr import ParamAttr x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[5,10,10], dtype="float32") mode = 'channel' output = fluid.layers.prelu( x,mode,param_attr=ParamAttr(name='alpha')) """ helper = LayerHelper('prelu', **locals()) if mode not in ['all', 'channel', 'element']: raise ValueError('mode should be one of all, channel, element.') alpha_shape = [1] if mode == 'channel': alpha_shape = [1, x.shape[1], 1, 1] elif mode == 'element': alpha_shape = x.shape dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='x') alpha = helper.create_parameter( attr=helper.param_attr, shape=alpha_shape, dtype='float32', is_bias=False, default_initializer=Constant(1.0)) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type="prelu", inputs={"X": x, 'Alpha': alpha}, attrs={"mode": mode}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def brelu(x, t_min=0.0, t_max=24.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} t_min(${t_min_type}|0.0): ${t_min_comment} t_max(${t_max_type}|24.0): ${t_max_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[2,3,16,16], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.brelu(x, t_min=1.0, t_max=20.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('brelu', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='brelu', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'t_min': t_min, 't_max': t_max}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def leaky_relu(x, alpha=0.02, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} alpha(${alpha_type}|0.02): ${alpha_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[2,3,16,16], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.leaky_relu(x, alpha=0.01) """ helper = LayerHelper('leaky_relu', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='leaky_relu', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'alpha': alpha}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def soft_relu(x, threshold=40.0, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} threshold(${threshold_type}|40.0): ${threshold_comment} name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: output(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[3,16,16], dtype="float32") y = fluid.layers.soft_relu(x, threshold=20.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('soft_relu', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='soft_relu', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'threshold': threshold}) return out
[docs]def flatten(x, axis=1, name=None): """ **Flatten layer** Flattens the input tensor into a 2D matrix. For Example: .. code-block:: text Case 1: Given X.shape = (3, 100, 100, 4) and axis = 2 We get: Out.shape = (3 * 100, 4 * 100) Case 2: Given X.shape = (3, 100, 100, 4) and axis = 0 We get: Out.shape = (1, 3 * 100 * 100 * 4) Args: x (Variable): A tensor of rank >= axis. axis (int): Indicate up to which input dimensions (exclusive) should be flattened to the outer dimension of the output. The value for axis must be in the range [0, R], where R is the rank of the input tensor. When axis = 0, the shape of the output tensor is (1, (d_0 X d_1 ... d_n), where the shape of the input tensor is (d_0, d_1, ... d_n). name(str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: A 2D tensor with the contents of the input tensor, with input \ dimensions up to axis flattened to the outer dimension of \ the output and remaining input dimensions flattened into the \ inner dimension of the output. Raises: ValueError: If x is not a variable. ValueError: If axis is not in range [0, rank(x)]. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="x", shape=[4, 4, 3], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.flatten(x=x, axis=2) """ helper = LayerHelper('flatten', **locals()) if not (isinstance(x, Variable)): raise ValueError("The input x should be a Variable") if not (isinstance(axis, int)) or axis > len(x.shape) or axis < 0: raise ValueError("The axis should be a int, and in range [0, rank(x)]") out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype) x_shape = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype) helper.append_op( type='flatten2', inputs={"X": x}, outputs={'Out': out, 'XShape': x_shape}, attrs={"axis": axis}) return out
[docs]def sequence_enumerate(input, win_size, pad_value=0, name=None): """ Generate a new sequence for the input index sequence, which enumerates all the sub-sequences with length `win_size` of the input. The enumerated sequence has the same 1st dimension with variable `input`, and the 2nd dimension is `win_size`, padded by `pad_value` if necessary in generation. .. code-block:: text Case 1: Input: X.lod = [[0, 3, 5]] X.data = [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]] X.dims = [5, 1] Attrs: win_size = 2 pad_value = 0 Output: Out.lod = [[0, 3, 5]] Out.data = [[1, 2], [2, 3], [3, 0], [4, 5], [5, 0]] Out.dims = [5, 2] Args: input (Variable): The input variable which is a index sequence. win_size (int): The window size for enumerating all sub-sequences. pad_value (int): The padding value, default 0. Returns: Variable: The enumerate sequence variable which is a LoDTensor. Examples: .. code-block:: python x = fluid.layers.data(shape[-1, 1], dtype='int32', lod_level=1) out = fluid.layers.sequence_enumerate(input=x, win_size=3, pad_value=0) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_enumerate', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( helper.input_dtype(), stop_gradient=True) helper.append_op( type='sequence_enumerate', inputs={'X': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'win_size': win_size, 'pad_value': pad_value}) return out
[docs]def sequence_mask(x, maxlen=None, dtype='int64', name=None): """ **SequenceMask Layer** This layer outputs a mask according to the input :code:`x` and :code:`maxlen` with data type of :code:`dtype`. Supposing :code:`x` is a Tensor with shape [d_1, d_2, ..., d_n], the :code:`y` is a mask with shape [d_1, d_2, ..., d_n, maxlen], where: .. math:: y(i_1, i_2,..., i_n, j) = (j < x(i_1, i_2,..., i_n)) Args: x (Variable): Input tensor of sequence_mask layer, whose elements are integers less than :code:`maxlen`. maxlen (int|None): Maximum length of the sequence. If :code:`maxlen` is None, it would be replace with :math:`max(x)`. dtype (np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): Data type of the output. name (str|None): A name for this layer(optional). If set None, the layer will be named automatically. Returns: Variable: The output sequence mask. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10], dtype='float32', lod_level=1) mask = layers.sequence_mask(x=x) """ assert not in_dygraph_mode(), ( "sequence layer is not supported in dygraph mode yet.") helper = LayerHelper('sequence_mask', **locals()) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=dtype, name=name) inputs = {'X': [x]} attrs = {'out_dtype': out.dtype} if maxlen is not None: if isinstance(maxlen, Variable): inputs['MaxLenTensor'] = maxlen else: attrs['maxlen'] = maxlen helper.append_op( type='sequence_mask', inputs=inputs, outputs={'Y': out}, attrs=attrs) out.stop_gradient = True return out
[docs]def stack(x, axis=0): """ **Stack Layer** This layer stacks all of the input :code:`x` along axis. Input :code:`x` can be a single variable, a :code:`list` of variables, or a :code:`tuple` of variables. If :code:`x` is a :code:`list` or :code:`tuple`, the shapes of all these variables must be the same. Supposing the shape of each input is :math:`[d_0, d_1, ..., d_{n-1}]`, the shape of the output variable would be :math:`[d_0, d_1, ..., d_{axis}=len(x), ..., d_{n-1}]`. If :code:`axis` < 0, it would be replaced with :code:`axis+rank(x[0])+1`. If :code:`axis` is None, it would be replaced with 0. For Example: .. code-block:: text Case 1: Input: x[0].data = [ [1.0 , 2.0 ] ] x[0].dims = [1, 2] x[1].data = [ [3.0 , 4.0 ] ] x[1].dims = [1, 2] x[2].data = [ [5.0 , 6.0 ] ] x[2].dims = [1, 2] Attrs: axis = 0 Output: Out.data =[ [ [1.0, 2.0] ], [ [3.0, 4.0] ], [ [5.0, 6.0] ] ] Out.dims = [3, 1, 2] Case 2: Given x[0].data = [ [1.0 , 2.0 ] ] x[0].dims = [1, 2] x[1].data = [ [3.0 , 4.0 ] ] x[1].dims = [1, 2] x[2].data = [ [5.0 , 6.0 ] ] x[2].dims = [1, 2] Attrs: axis = 1 or axis = -2 Output: Out.data =[ [ [1.0, 2.0] [3.0, 4.0] [5.0, 6.0] ] ] Out.dims = [1, 3, 2] Args: x (Variable|list(Variable)|tuple(Variable)): Input variables. axis (int|None): The axis along which all inputs are stacked. Returns: Variable: The stacked variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers x1 = layers.data(name='x1', shape=[1, 2], dtype='int32') x2 = layers.data(name='x2', shape=[1, 2], dtype='int32') data = layers.stack([x1,x2]) """ helper = LayerHelper('stack', **locals()) axis = 0 if axis is None else axis if not isinstance(x, list) and not isinstance(x, tuple): x = [x] out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x[0].dtype) helper.append_op( type='stack', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Y': out}, attrs={'axis': axis}) return out
[docs]def unstack(x, axis=0, num=None): """ **UnStack Layer** This layer unstacks input :code:`x` into several tensors along axis. If :code:`axis` < 0, it would be replaced with :code:`axis+rank(x)`. If :code:`num` is None, it would be inferred from :code:`x.shape[axis]`, and if :code:`x.shape[axis]` <= 0 or is unknown, :code:`ValueError` is raised. Args: x (Variable): Input variable. axis (int): The axis along which the input is unstacked. num (int|None): The number of output variables. Returns: list(Variable): The unstacked variables. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[5, 10], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.unstack(x, axis=1) """ helper = LayerHelper('unstack', **locals()) if num is None: if axis is None or x.shape[axis] <= 0: raise ValueError('unknown unstack number') else: num = x.shape[axis] outs = [] for _ in range(num): outs.append(helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(x.dtype)) helper.append_op( type='unstack', inputs={'X': [x]}, outputs={'Y': outs}, attrs={'axis': axis, 'num': num}) return outs
[docs]def expand(x, expand_times, name=None): """Expand operator tiles the input by given times number. You should set times number for each dimension by providing attribute 'expand_times'. The rank of X should be in [1, 6]. Please note that size of 'expand_times' must be the same with X's rank. Following is a using case: .. code-block:: text Input(X) is a 3-D tensor with shape [2, 3, 1]: [ [[1], [2], [3]], [[4], [5], [6]] ] Attr(expand_times): [1, 2, 2] Output(Out) is a 3-D tensor with shape [2, 6, 2]: [ [[1, 1], [2, 2], [3, 3], [1, 1], [2, 2], [3, 3]], [[4, 4], [5, 5], [6, 6], [4, 4], [5, 5], [6, 6]] ] Args: x (Variable): A tensor with rank in [1, 6]. expand_times (list|tuple): Expand times number for each dimension. Returns: Variable: The expanded variable which is a LoDTensor. After expanding, size of each dimension of Output(Out) is equal to ithe size of the corresponding dimension of Input(X) multiplying the corresponding value given by expand_times. Examples: .. code-block:: python x = fluid.layers.data(name='x', shape=[10], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.expand(x=x, expand_times=[1, 2, 2]) """ helper = LayerHelper('expand', input=x, **locals()) dtype = helper.input_dtype(input_param_name='x') out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) # check expand_times have tensor if in_dygraph_mode(): inputs = {'X': x} attrs = {'expand_times': expand_times} else: def contain_tensor(expand_times): for ele in expand_times: if isinstance(ele, Variable): return True return False if contain_tensor(expand_times): new_expand_times = [] for ele in expand_times: if isinstance(ele, Variable): ele.stop_gradient = True new_expand_times.append(ele) else: assert (isinstance(ele, int)) temp_out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) fill_constant( [1], 'int32', ele, force_cpu=True, out=temp_out) new_expand_times.append(temp_out) inputs = {'X': x, 'expand_times_tensor': new_expand_times} attrs = {} else: inputs = {'X': x} attrs = {'expand_times': expand_times} helper.append_op( type='expand', inputs=inputs, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs=attrs) return out
from paddle.fluid.framework import convert_np_dtype_to_dtype_ @templatedoc()
[docs]def uniform_random_batch_size_like(input, shape, dtype='float32', input_dim_idx=0, output_dim_idx=0, min=-1.0, max=1.0, seed=0): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): ${input_comment} shape (tuple|list): ${shape_comment} input_dim_idx (Int): ${input_dim_idx_comment} output_dim_idx (Int): ${output_dim_idx_comment} min (Float): ${min_comment} max (Float): ${max_comment} seed (Int): ${seed_comment} dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): The type of data : float32, float_16, int etc Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers input = layers.data(name="input", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32') out = layers.uniform_random_batch_size_like(input, [-1, 11]) """ helper = LayerHelper('uniform_random_batch_size_like', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) c_dtype = convert_np_dtype_to_dtype_(dtype) helper.append_op( type='uniform_random_batch_size_like', inputs={'Input': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'shape': shape, 'input_dim_idx': input_dim_idx, 'output_dim_idx': output_dim_idx, 'min': min, 'max': max, 'seed': seed, 'dtype': c_dtype }) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def gaussian_random(shape, mean=0.0, std=1.0, seed=0, dtype='float32'): """ ${comment} Args: shape (tuple|list): ${shape_comment} mean (Float): ${mean_comment} std (Float): ${std_comment} seed (Int): ${seed_comment} dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): Output data type. Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers out = layers.gaussian_random(shape=[20, 30]) """ helper = LayerHelper('gaussian_random', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) c_dtype = convert_np_dtype_to_dtype_(dtype) helper.append_op( type='gaussian_random', outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'shape': shape, 'mean': mean, 'std': std, 'seed': seed, 'dtype': c_dtype, 'use_mkldnn': False }) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sampling_id(x, min=0.0, max=1.0, seed=0, dtype='float32'): """ ${comment} Args: x (Variable): ${x_comment} min (Float): ${min_comment} max (Float): ${max_comment} seed (Float): ${seed_comment} dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): The type of output data : float32, float_16, int etc Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data( name="X", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32', append_batch_size=False) out = fluid.layers.sampling_id(x) """ helper = LayerHelper('sampling_id', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) helper.append_op( type='sampling_id', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'min': min, 'max': max, 'seed': seed}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def gaussian_random_batch_size_like(input, shape, input_dim_idx=0, output_dim_idx=0, mean=0.0, std=1.0, seed=0, dtype='float32'): """ ${comment} Args: input (Variable): ${input_comment} shape (tuple|list): ${shape_comment} input_dim_idx (Int): ${input_dim_idx_comment} output_dim_idx (Int): ${output_dim_idx_comment} mean (Float): ${mean_comment} std (Float): ${std_comment} seed (Int): ${seed_comment} dtype(np.dtype|core.VarDesc.VarType|str): The type of output data : float32, float_16, int etc Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data(name="input", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.gaussian_random_batch_size_like( input, shape=[-1, 11], mean=1.0, std=2.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('gaussian_random_batch_size_like', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype) c_dtype = convert_np_dtype_to_dtype_(dtype) helper.append_op( type='gaussian_random_batch_size_like', inputs={'Input': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'shape': shape, 'input_dim_idx': input_dim_idx, 'output_dim_idx': output_dim_idx, 'mean': mean, 'std': std, 'seed': seed, 'dtype': c_dtype }) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sum(x): """ ${comment} Args: x (Variable): ${x_comment} Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid import paddle.fluid.layers as layers input0 = layers.data(name="input0", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32') input1 = layers.data(name="input1", shape=[13, 11], dtype='float32') out = layers.sum([input0,input1]) """ helper = LayerHelper('sum', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype('x')) helper.append_op( type='sum', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'use_mkldnn': False}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def slice(input, axes, starts, ends): """ Slice Operator. Produces a slice of the input tensor along multiple axes. Similar to numpy: https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/arrays.indexing.html Slice uses `axes`, `starts` and `ends` attributes to specify the start and end dimension for each axis in the list of axes, it uses this information to slice the input data tensor. If a negative value is passed for any of the start or end indices, it represents number of elements before the end of that dimension. If the value passed to start or end is larger than the n (the number of elements in this dimension), it represents n. For slicing to the end of a dimension with unknown size, it is recommended to pass in INT_MAX. The size of axes must be equal to starts\' and ends\'. Following examples will explain how slice works: .. code-block:: text Case1: Given: data = [ [1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], ] axes = [0, 1] starts = [1, 0] ends = [2, 3] Then: result = [ [5, 6, 7], ] Case2: Given: data = [ [1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], ] axes = [0, 1] starts = [0, 1] ends = [-1, 1000] Then: result = [ [2, 3, 4], ] Args: input (Variable): ${input_comment}. axes (List): ${axes_comment} starts (List): ${starts_comment} ends (List): ${ends_comment} Returns: out (Variable): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid starts = [1, 0, 2] ends = [3, 3, 4] axes = [0, 1, 2] input = fluid.layers.data( name="input", shape=[3, 4, 5, 6], dtype='float32') out = fluid.layers.slice(input, axes=axes, starts=starts, ends=ends) """ helper = LayerHelper('slice', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference( dtype=helper.input_dtype('input')) helper.append_op( type='slice', inputs={'Input': input}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'axes': axes, 'starts': starts, 'ends': ends}) return out
[docs]def shape(input): """ **Shape Layer** Get the shape of the input. Args: input (Variable): The input variable. Returns: Variable: The shape of the input variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name="input", shape=[3, 100, 100], dtype="float32") out = fluid.layers.shape(input) """ helper = LayerHelper('shape', **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype='int32') helper.append_op( type='shape', inputs={'Input': input}, outputs={'Out': out}) return out
[docs]def rank(input): """ **Rank Layer** Returns the number of dimensions for a tensor, which is a 0-D int32 Tensor. Args: input (Variable): The input variable. Returns: Variable: The rank of the input variable. Examples: .. code-block:: python input = layers.data( name="input", shape=[3, 100, 100], dtype="float32") rank = layers.rank(input) # 4 """ ndims = len(input.shape) out = assign(np.array(ndims, 'int32')) return out
def _elementwise_op(helper): op_type = helper.layer_type x = helper.kwargs.get('x', None) y = helper.kwargs.get('y', None) if in_dygraph_mode(): x = base.to_variable(x) y = base.to_variable(y) assert x is not None, 'x cannot be None in {}'.format(op_type) assert y is not None, 'y cannot be None in {}'.format(op_type) axis = helper.kwargs.get('axis', -1) use_mkldnn = helper.kwargs.get('use_mkldnn', False) name = helper.kwargs.get('name', None) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type=op_type, inputs={'X': x, 'Y': y}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={'axis': axis, 'use_mkldnn': use_mkldnn}) return helper.append_activation(out) @templatedoc()
[docs]def scale(x, scale=1.0, bias=0.0, bias_after_scale=True, act=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} scale(${scale_type}): ${scale_comment} bias(${bias_type}): ${bias_comment} bias_after_scale(${bias_after_scale_type}): ${bias_after_scale_comment} act(basestring|None): Activation applied to the output. name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid x = fluid.layers.data(name="X", shape=[1, 2, 5, 5], dtype='float32') y = fluid.layers.scale(x, scale = 2.0, bias = 1.0) """ helper = LayerHelper('scale', **locals()) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type='scale', inputs={'X': x}, outputs={'Out': out}, attrs={ 'scale': float(scale), 'bias': float(bias), 'bias_after_scale': bias_after_scale }) return helper.append_activation(out)
[docs]def elementwise_add(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_add', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_div(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_div', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_sub(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_sub', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_mul(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_mul', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_max(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_max', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_min(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_min', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_pow(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_pow', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_mod(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_mod', **locals()))
[docs]def elementwise_floordiv(x, y, axis=-1, act=None, name=None): return _elementwise_op(LayerHelper('elementwise_floordiv', **locals()))
for func in [ elementwise_add, elementwise_div, elementwise_sub, elementwise_mul, elementwise_max, elementwise_min, elementwise_pow, elementwise_mod, elementwise_floordiv, ]: op_proto = OpProtoHolder.instance().get_op_proto(func.__name__) func.__doc__ = _generate_doc_string_( op_proto, additional_args_lines=[ "act (basestring|None): Activation applied to the output.", "name (basestring|None): Name of the output." ]) func.__doc__ = func.__doc__ + """ Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid # example 1: shape(x) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(y) = (2, 3, 4, 5) x0 = fluid.layers.data(name="x0", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y0 = fluid.layers.data(name="y0", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') z0 = fluid.layers.%s(x0, y0) # example 2: shape(X) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(Y) = (5) x1 = fluid.layers.data(name="x1", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y1 = fluid.layers.data(name="y1", shape=[5], dtype='float32') z1 = fluid.layers.%s(x1, y1) # example 3: shape(X) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(Y) = (4, 5), with axis=-1(default) or axis=2 x2 = fluid.layers.data(name="x2", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y2 = fluid.layers.data(name="y2", shape=[4, 5], dtype='float32') z2 = fluid.layers.%s(x2, y2, axis=2) # example 4: shape(X) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(Y) = (3, 4), with axis=1 x3 = fluid.layers.data(name="x3", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y3 = fluid.layers.data(name="y3", shape=[3, 4], dtype='float32') z3 = fluid.layers.%s(x3, y3, axis=1) # example 5: shape(X) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(Y) = (2), with axis=0 x4 = fluid.layers.data(name="x4", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y4 = fluid.layers.data(name="y4", shape=[2], dtype='float32') z4 = fluid.layers.%s(x4, y4, axis=0) # example 6: shape(X) = (2, 3, 4, 5), shape(Y) = (2, 1), with axis=0 x5 = fluid.layers.data(name="x5", shape=[2, 3, 4, 5], dtype='float32') y5 = fluid.layers.data(name="y5", shape=[2], dtype='float32') z5 = fluid.layers.%s(x5, y5, axis=0) """ % (func.__name__, func.__name__, func.__name__, func.__name__, func.__name__, func.__name__) def _logical_op(op_name, x, y, out=None, name=None, binary_op=True): helper = LayerHelper(op_name, **locals()) if binary_op: assert x.dtype == y.dtype if out is None: if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) if binary_op: helper.append_op( type=op_name, inputs={"X": x, "Y": y}, outputs={"Out": out}) else: helper.append_op(type=op_name, inputs={"X": x}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out @templatedoc()
[docs]def logical_and(x, y, out=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} y(${y_type}): ${y_comment} out(Tensor): Output tensor of logical operation. name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid left = fluid.layers.data( name='left', shape=[1], dtype='int32') right = fluid.layers.data( name='right', shape=[1], dtype='int32') result = fluid.layers.logical_and(x=left, y=right) """ return _logical_op( op_name="logical_and", x=x, y=y, name=name, out=out, binary_op=True)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def logical_or(x, y, out=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} y(${y_type}): ${y_comment} out(Tensor): Output tensor of logical operation. name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid left = fluid.layers.data( name='left', shape=[1], dtype='int32') right = fluid.layers.data( name='right', shape=[1], dtype='int32') result = fluid.layers.logical_or(x=left, y=right) """ return _logical_op( op_name="logical_or", x=x, y=y, name=name, out=out, binary_op=True)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def logical_xor(x, y, out=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} y(${y_type}): ${y_comment} out(Tensor): Output tensor of logical operation. name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid left = fluid.layers.data( name='left', shape=[1], dtype='int32') right = fluid.layers.data( name='right', shape=[1], dtype='int32') result = fluid.layers.logical_xor(x=left, y=right) """ return _logical_op( op_name="logical_xor", x=x, y=y, name=name, out=out, binary_op=True)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def logical_not(x, out=None, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} out(Tensor): Output tensor of logical operation. name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid left = fluid.layers.data( name='left', shape=[1], dtype='int32') result = fluid.layers.logical_not(x=left) """ return _logical_op( op_name="logical_not", x=x, y=None, name=name, out=out, binary_op=False)
@templatedoc()
[docs]def clip(x, min, max, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} min(${min_type}): ${min_comment} max(${max_type}): ${max_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[1], dtype='float32') reward = fluid.layers.clip(x=input, min=-1.0, max=1.0) """ helper = LayerHelper("clip", **locals()) if name is None: name = unique_name.generate_with_ignorable_key(".".join( [helper.name, 'tmp'])) out = helper.create_variable( type=x.type, name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type="clip", inputs={"X": x}, attrs={"min": min, "max": max}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def clip_by_norm(x, max_norm, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} max_norm(${max_norm_type}): ${max_norm_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[1], dtype='float32') reward = fluid.layers.clip_by_norm(x=input, max_norm=1.0) """ helper = LayerHelper("clip_by_norm", **locals()) if name is None: name = unique_name.generate_with_ignorable_key(".".join( [helper.name, 'tmp'])) out = helper.create_variable( type=x.type, name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type="clip_by_norm", inputs={"X": x}, attrs={"max_norm": max_norm}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def mean(x, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[2, 3], dtype='float32') mean = fluid.layers.mean(input) """ helper = LayerHelper("mean", **locals()) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type="mean", inputs={"X": x}, attrs={}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def merge_selected_rows(x, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid b = fluid.default_main_program().global_block() var = b.create_var( name="X", dtype="float32", persistable=True, type=fluid.core.VarDesc.VarType.SELECTED_ROWS) y = fluid.layers.merge_selected_rows(var) """ helper = LayerHelper("merge_selected_rows", **locals()) out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) helper.append_op( type="merge_selected_rows", inputs={"X": x}, attrs={}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def mul(x, y, x_num_col_dims=1, y_num_col_dims=1, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} y(${y_type}): ${y_comment} x_num_col_dims(${x_num_col_dims_type}): ${x_num_col_dims_comment} y_num_col_dims(${y_num_col_dims_type}): ${y_num_col_dims_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid dataX = fluid.layers.data(name="dataX", append_batch_size = False, shape=[2, 5], dtype="float32") dataY = fluid.layers.data(name="dataY", append_batch_size = False, shape=[5, 3], dtype="float32") output = fluid.layers.mul(dataX, dataY, x_num_col_dims = 1, y_num_col_dims = 1) """ helper = LayerHelper("mul", **locals()) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type="mul", inputs={"X": x, "Y": y}, attrs={ "x_num_col_dims": x_num_col_dims, "y_num_col_dims": y_num_col_dims }, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def sigmoid_cross_entropy_with_logits(x, label, ignore_index=kIgnoreIndex, name=None, normalize=False): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} label(${label_type}): ${label_comment} ignore_index(&{ignore_index}): ${ignore_index_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. normalize(bool): If true, divide the output by the number of targets != ignore_index. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python import paddle.fluid as fluid input = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[10], dtype='float32') label = fluid.layers.data( name='data', shape=[10], dtype='float32') loss = fluid.layers.sigmoid_cross_entropy_with_logits( x=input, label=label, ignore_index=-1, normalize=True) # or False # loss = fluid.layers.reduce_sum(loss) # summation of loss """ helper = LayerHelper("sigmoid_cross_entropy_with_logits", **locals()) if name is None: out = helper.create_variable_for_type_inference(dtype=x.dtype) else: out = helper.create_variable( name=name, dtype=x.dtype, persistable=False) helper.append_op( type="sigmoid_cross_entropy_with_logits", inputs={"X": x, "Label": label}, attrs={"ignore_index": ignore_index, 'normalize': normalize}, outputs={"Out": out}) return out
@templatedoc()
[docs]def maxout(x, groups, name=None): """ ${comment} Args: x(${x_type}): ${x_comment} groups(${groups_type}): ${groups_comment} name(basestring|None): Name of the output. Returns: out(${out_type}): ${out_comment} Examples: .. code-block:: python